GEOL 101 FINAL EXAM - GEOL 101 FINAL EXAM Study Guide...

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GEOL 101 FINAL EXAM – Study Guide PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY Spring Semester 2008, Sections 537-545 Philosophy of Science Aim of science/Growth of scientific knowledge Subject matter of science - limited to the material world The scientific process/method- 1. Make a guess 2. based on guess, make predictions 3. see if predictions are right *the only certainty is when we know we are wrong Data – reproducibility ‘objective’ observations/measurements Hypothesis – testability, testable prediction based on guess Theory – coherent/internally consistent body of observations/concepts/laws serves as a basis for generating hypothesis Accountability (reproducible) versus correctness/truth Basic Properties of the Earth Shape – spherical (pics from space, sink in horizon-oldest, straight line traveling) Size – radius 6371 km, circumference (2pi*r) 40030km 737.5x size of TX 71% oceans, 29% land, Erathosthenes first to measure Mass – 5.96x10^24 kg, Newton’s Theory of Gravitation – critical constant found Density = mass/volume g/cm^3 How were these things figured out? Density of rocks at surface = 3.0 g/cm^3 Seismic Imaging of the Earth’s Interior P-waves (compression)stretching/squeezing, primary waves – faster, pass through liquids and solids S-waves (shear)waving up and down or side to side, secondary waves– slower, cannot pass through liquid Reflection (bounced) s to f and refraction (bent) f to s Large-scale seismic observations : 1) seismic wavepaths curve up through Earth; Mohorovicic Discontinuity 2) existence of the shadow zone – difference between S and P waves 3) some P-waves are reflected from inner core Layers : crust (0-40) mantle (40-2890), outer core (2890-5150), inner core (5150-6370) Origin of Solar System – Big Bang, 13-14 giga billion years Nebular Theory – Nebula (cloud of gas/dust in space SPINNING, prior to our solar
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GEOL 101 FINAL EXAM - GEOL 101 FINAL EXAM Study Guide...

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