textbook notes for exam 2.docx - Chapter 7 The Executive Branch The bureaucracies of the executive branch are the administrative heart and soul of

textbook notes for exam 2.docx - Chapter 7 The Executive...

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Chapter 7- The Executive Branch The bureaucracies of the executive branch are the administrative heart and soul of government- necessary for the maintenance of order in a large society. They are where the policies formulated and passed into law by elected officials are interpreted, implemented, and ultimately delivered into a nation’s citizens. Government touches the lives of ordinary citizens most directly in their interactions with bureaucratic agents o At the DMV when obtaining a driver’s license o When filing an income-tax return with the Internal Revenue Service o At the recruiting center when enlisting o At the Board of Elections when registering to vote Public bureaucracies are powerful o Legislatures, chief executives, and the people delegate them vast power to make sure a particular job is done- leaves the rest of us freer to pursue our private ends. o Examples: 1. After September 11- revealed underlying appreciation of public bureaucracies- public supported giving the federal government responsibility for airport security even though this meant expanding the federal bureaucracy 2. In 2008 and 2009- Americans looked to the federal bureaucracy to help solve the financial crisis o Americans have often been suspicious of bureaucracy because… 1. Concern about organizational bias Agency executives are often concerned with their budget, power and autonomy compared to other institutions and political forces. An organization’s internal politics. Just as organizations vie with one another, factions within an agency compete with rival groups for money, power, and prestige. Main Points: o The size of the federal bureaucracy is large but has not been growing faster than the economy or the population as a whole. o By implementing the laws and policies passed by elected officials, bureaucrats can be seen as agents of Congress and the presidency. As in any principal-agent relationship, the agent (the bureaucracy) is delegated authority and has a certain amount of leeway for independent action. o Bureaucrats have their own goals and thus exercise their own influence on policy. Congressional committees use oversight to make the bureaucracy accountable. How Does Bureaucracy Work?
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Bureaucratic Organization Enhances Efficiency o Core of bureaucracy is the division of labor o Key to bureaucratic effectiveness is the coordination of experts performing complex tasks o Bureaucracies become hierarchical, and often pyramidal Bureaucracies Allow Governments to Operate o By diving up tasks, matching them to a labor force that develops appropriately specialized skills, routinizing procedures, and providing
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