Q1. What is nationalism? Describe its various kinds. Nationalism has been defined in a variety of ways, but definitions are always rooted in the nation, which most scholars agree emerged during thetransition to the modern industrial age, supplanting monarchies and other kinds of prior communities and groups based on kinship or tribal ties. Initially, scholars saw nations as based on primordial attachments that wereunderstood to exist as “given” through birth into a particular geographic community or ethnic group. This understanding has evolved into a view of “imagined communities” in which nations are based on a sense of attachment to one another among individuals dispersed across space and time and likely never to meet each other but who share customs, language,traditions, culture, or residence within a set of borders. Because these attachments are imagined by individuals and groups of individuals, neither nations nor the identities attached to them can be understood as essentialized, stable, or static. Instead, nations today are thought to be imagined, constructed, and negotiated. Nationalism exists in these moments of imagination and construction of the nation, which take many forms. The simple expression of national identity, efforts to make political and national units congruent, or xenophobic treatment of outsiders in favor of those deemed to belong to the nation are all examples of nationalist forms. Nationalism can be official and ceremonial (as in the singing of national anthems at presidential inaugurations) or banal (as in the quotidiannationalist symbols people encounter in their everyday lives, from national flags in school buildings to postage stamps displaying national heroes).Nationalismis essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one'snation. Nationalism involvesnational identity, by contrast with the related concept ofpatriotism, which involves thesocial conditioningand personal behaviors that support a state's decisions and actions.
KINDS OF NATIONALISM:Many scholars argue that there is more than onetype of nationalism.Nationalismmay manifest itself as part of official state ideology or as a popular (non-state) movement and may be expressed alongcivic,ethnic,cultural,religiousorideologicallines. These self-definitions of the nation are used to classify types of nationalism. However, such categories are not mutually exclusive and many nationalist movements combine some or all of these elements to varying degrees. Nationalist movements can also be classified by other criteria, such as scale and location.Ethnic nationalismEthnic nationalismdefines the nation in terms of ethnicity, which always includes some element of descentfrom previous generations - i.e. genophilia. It also includes ideas of a culture shared between members
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