HISTORY MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE.pdf - Identifications Thaddeus Stevens Lawyer and iron manufacturer who represented Pennsylvania in the House of

HISTORY MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE.pdf - Identifications Thaddeus...

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Identifications: Thaddeus Stevens: Lawyer and iron manufacturer who represented Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives Outspoken foe of slavery and defender of black rights Urged Lincoln to free and arm slaves early in the Civil War Favored black suffrage (blacks right to vote) in 1865 Most cherished aim: to confiscate the land of the disloyal planters and divide it among former slaves and northern migrants to the South Believed that without this the government would never be a true republic TOO radical (republican) Proposal failed to pass Black Codes Laws passed by the new southern governments that attempted to regulate the lives of the former slaves These laws granted blacks certain rights, such as legalized marriage, ownership of property, and limited access to the courts They denied them the rights to testify against whites, to serve on juries or in state militias, or to vote Declared that those who failed to sign yearly labor contracts could be arrested and hired out to white landowners Clearly the death of slavery did not automatically mean the birth of freedom So completely violated free labor principles that they called forth a vigorous response from the Republican North → aroused opposition to Johnson’s Reconstruction policy Dawes Act Crucial step in attacking Indian tribalism 1887 Senator Henry L. Dawes of Massachusetts, chair of the Senate’s Indian Affairs Committee
Broke up the land of nearly all tribes into small parcels to be distributed to Indian families, with the remainder auctioned off to white purchasers Indians who accepted the farms and “adopted the habits of civilized life” would become fully-fledged American citizens Policy proved to be a disaster, leading to the loss of much tribal land and the erosion of Indian cultural traditions Whites benefited enormously, settlers poured into the territory to claim farms Indians lost 86 million of the 138 million acres of land in their possession Social Darwinism The idea of natural superiority of some groups to others → “survival of the fittest” Before the Civil War had been invoked to justify slavery in an otherwise free society, now reemerged in the vocabulary of modern science to explain the success and failure of individuals and social classes Charles Darwin → theory of evolution whereby plant and animal species best suited to their environment took the place of those less able to adapt Evolution was as natural a process in human society as in nature, and government must not interfere Basically, natural selection meaning those who are naturally meant to be successful are the ones who are going to succeed and that’s not their

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