COLD WAR (1945-1991)Note: ★Refer to Lecture 1.5: Historical Interpretation before exam ★Korean War, CMC, Vietnam War Year USAUSSR 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria. Shift in USA foreign policy from isolation to taking on a more active role. 1939USSR invaded Poland. 19417 DEC: Japan attacked Pearl Harbour => shattered the illusion of invulnerability that USA enjoyed for past 200 years. JUNE: Germany invaded USSR. ●Exposed USSR’s key vulnerabilities ●Made USSR wanted to create buffer and gain control of Poland (defensive expansion) ●Wanted to maintain Grand Alliance to getUSA’s loans and aid. ●Was prepared to respect Western influence if they respected USSR’s. ●Stalin urged a more restrained and moderate course of action of communist movements in WE: advised communists in Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Britain and China to work w non-communists in government. 1943 TEHRAN CONFERENCE1944JULY: BRETTON WOODS CONFERENCE●USSR agreed to join World Bank and IMF. ●US promised loan to USSR to help in its post-war reconstruction. ●USSR was wary of US-dollar diplomacy WORLD BANK AND IMF FOUNDED1945FEB: YALTA CONFERENCE●USSR: Wanted Germany to be weak, sought high reparations. Promised Roosevelt that USSR will fight Japan once Germany was defeated. ●Western: Wanted recovery for Europe and ensure that Germany not totally crippled●Big Three agreed that Germany should pay reparations for the damages inflicted and the bulk of it should go to USSR. Western Allies baulked at Soviet’s claimant of $10billion. ●Agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones.
APRIL: Roosevelt -> Truman, Churchill -> Atlee MAY: Lend-Lease Programme abruptly ended. 6 and 9 AUG: USA bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 15 AUG: Japan surrendered. AUG/JULY: POTSDAM CONFERENCE ●USSR: insisted more reparations on Germany. Did not sign up for membership in World Bank and IMF until Aug 1945. ●USA: willing only to allow respective powers to extract reparations from their own occupation areas. (but eastern Germany was mainly agriculture so USSR felt disadvantaged). US later agreed to let USSR have 25% of the machinery from the westernzones but USSR had to send back 60% of goods of raw materials. ●USA: Successful testing of A-bomb => no longer need USSR. Nuclear monopoly => raised USA’s negotiation power. ●Issue of Poland: UK vs USSR ●Decided to split Korea (previously occupied by Japan) along the 38th parallel. But they did not plan to create two separate states, in Dec they agreed to a Joint Commission to create a single government in Korea. => Divisions in Korea started off with civil warStalin wanted to create buffer zone in Eastern Europe to prevent invasion => creation of satellite states. ●Annexed part of Finland, Poland, Germany, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Baltic States ●Pro- Soviet regimes in neighbouring countries 1946FEB: KENNAN’S ‘LONG TELEGRAM’ ●talked about USSR’s refusal to join the World Bank and IMF, and why he denounced capitalism.