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Chp 3 - Rock Rock Types S.v aggregate of one or Inore...

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Unformatted text preview: Rock Rock Types . . . S ' .v aggregate of one or Inore Inlnerals edlmenta13 _ _ _ _ - Formed by accumulation and consolidation of sediment ° Defined by mineralogy and texture (sand, silt clay) that was transported on the surface of Ea1th by wind, water or ice 0 Products of broken down rock, (lead animals and plants Metamorphic - Sedimentaly or Igneous rocks that have been buried and altered in a solid state in response to changes in temperature, pressure or chemical activity . c ‘ s 7 Age Of IOCL Igneous Rocks 0 \ hat information do we want from rock 7 - Cooled and solidified from hot molten state Unfortunately, “'6 haven‘t found many V913" 01d I‘OCkS 011 - Intrusive — formed fro cooling magma within Earth Earth because our planet's surface is onstantly renewed . Extrusive _ formed cooling magma on Earth surface b ' plate tectonics, coupled with erosion. obert Duncan (Geoscientist — Oregon State Univ.) Mineral Constituents Type at rock and Rock-lnrlning souru malerinl prouss Example 0 Elements Crystallization mm"?! °f ”“5 ‘" (mlidlllulinn of has deep (rust mi magma "In", upper mantle 0 Fundamental components of matter 0 ~108 known Coar y cryslall a SEDIMEII'IARV Weathering and Emilia: TV ‘ V ZZiJZSJfiSSZ‘... lifllilk'alion o 8 make up IIIOI‘C than 989,0 OI Earth S CI‘USt Crass—Iamlnmed sandstone Element % By weight % by Volume Mailman": l “w“ "d" 1" 9h nurysullimion EEZEZZiL'ZES imam?! 46-6 93-8 $33.: upper ““4 “me" 5 27.7 0 .9 "guru-n 8'1 0'5 Elmirflmzmflfflm 5-° M 3.6 1.0 . . . . . 2.8 1.3 Rock cycle is discussed in terms of plate tectonics in 2.6 1.8 . 0.3 Understanding Earth, Chapter 3. all others _ <o,1 Periodic Table of Elements mu: pm. . _ immw [..m......m.... Mum. '9“°°”‘ sed'mnm'y M°'""‘°'P"" redraw; ., , 73:113.... ”11:14.1. Rorks Rorks Rocks Mumm- will?“ \llm's. m. “Wm... mum.“ ”3""? ”iii" :L”:::‘:.:L'::::'m.... "mm" ‘ *Quartz *Quartz *Quartz WWW... *Feldspar *Clay minerals *Feldspar . , um“... ... .m mm... .m... mm"... *Mica *Feldspar *Mica . *Pyroxene Calcite *Garnet *Amphibole Dolomite *Pyroxene *Olivine Gypsum *Staurolite Halite *Kyanite Note: Asterisk indicates that the mineral is a silicate. ram: 175 ummming rm mm mm moo/w.» rwmmmmmum Mineral Constituents, continued Ions . Oxygen Anion 9 8 electrons (-), 8 protons (+), 8 neutrons ° AtOm 2 electrons gained to fill outer shell 0 Basic unit of an element A \pmduces Ion mm '2 Charge 0. . ‘7 0 Nucleus — Positivelv charged center 3. 0 Protons — POSIUVC charge / 0 Neutrons — Neutral charge / \ \\ 0 Electrons — orbit in shells 0 around nucleus Sodium Cation O. > O . O 0 Negatlve charge ' 11 electrons (-), 11 protons (+), 11 neutrons 1 electron lost to empty outer shell produces ion with +1 charge Ionic Bonding - Gaining and Losing Electrons 0 Ionic Sodium um; I electron in 0 Lost and gained electrons outershell Chemical Bonding Sodium lose: I elecrron \ wbecome 0 Covalent \ sodiumion 0 Shared electrons 0 Metallic Chlurine atom: A Chlorine gains ° LOOSC electrons Zagfmqlsin _, _ 1.02:2:er u ,, ) chloride ion Electrical attraction 0 Van derWaals 0 Uneven distribution of electrons Opposite charged particles attract c d d. M ,d (N CI) ompoun .SO Ium C 0n 9 a , formed by electrical attraction between Na’ and Cl ’ Structure of Sodium Chloride (Halite) Ionic Radii and Crystal Structure \ \ Chloride ion ' Chloride ion ‘ \ Sodium ion 0 Sodium ion \ CA'I'IOIIS Silicon Aluminum Iron Magnesium Iron Sodium Calcium Potassium (Si‘hl (Al3') (Fes‘) (”is”) (Fen) (Na') (Cab) (K‘) . a 5 0 ‘9 0 Q a 0.27 0.53 0.65 0.72 0.73 0.99 1.00 1.38 Alllotls Oxygen Chloride Sulfide (02—, (cr) (52-) 1 .40 1 .81 1 .84 .9...” W.....mmsmwmm. moo/WM .W...c.....y Covalent Bonding - Sharing Electrons Carbon Atoms sha1ing electrons in diamond 0 Strong Bonds Any substance whose atoms are arranged in a regular, periodically repeated pattem Crystals All minerals are clystalline Clystal growth a . . . - Occlns by the add1t10n 0f 10ns to its surfaces from surrounding solution, melt, or Character t1c clystal form 0 If {gignth occuls freely in an uncrowded environnieut and chemical conditions are pe1fect - Develop clystal faces Scientific Method - II No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right; ngle experiment can prove me wrong. —— Albert Einstein (1879—1955) greatest theoretical ph cist of all time Research is the process of going up alleys to see if they are blind. —— Marston Bates (1906—1974) zoologist Mineral Constituents, continued 0 Compounds 0 Atoms bond together 0 Most minerals are compounds 0 Minerals 0 3500 minerals 0 Eight abundant elemen " ‘ combine in only a few wa to produce nine rock—forming mineral groups Graphile is formed at lower pressures and temperatures than diamond. Its carbon forms sheets whose atoms are more loosely packed than those in diamond. Within its sheets, carbon atoms are joined by strong covalent bonds. Strong bonds Weak bond Weak bonds connect carbon atoms in alternating sheets within the stack. Graphite ngm u part 1 llndermmding Earth, mu. Edition {Jim/WM FieemansmlCuNudHY Naturaldiulnonll isformecl by my high Classification Based on Chemical Composition and Crystalline Structure pressures and temperatures in Earth’s mantle. Its carbon atoms are closely packed. All carbon atoms in diamond are covalently bonded to four other carbon atoms. )\\_ Coy of Earth s crust composed of 51 and O //>- 0 Th combine with A1, Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, K to form 4% The carbon atoms are closely packed, ‘ _ ‘ _ and all the bonds are very strong. large 1113:]01‘1t' Oi COIDIDOH crustal mlner Electrons Nucleus 0 Two Broad Groups 0 Silicates — 95 Strong bonds 0 Nonsilicates Diamond "Wampum magnum; Ema. mm mm emu/w n l'reemananfl camps")! Silicates (SiO, 0 Slllca Tetrahedra — Complex Anlon ($109+ 2 mm: is made of Silicate ion (Sio‘h) Quartz silicate tetrahedra arranged in the same way as the tetrahedra in diamond. Quartz is a silicate polymorph. _2 'I The silicate ion forms tetrahedra WIth a central \ slllcan Ion surrounded i i by four oxygen ions. Oxygen ions Silicon ion (02') l5i4+l /Oxygen ion (02’) 3 Tetrahedra arranged in other ways are characteristic of other silicate minerals and determine their cleavage directions. Figure 379 p... 1 Understanding Ennh, mu. 5.1m... :1nmw.H Fveemanaud (uviiuauy (lawn a planes and Ill-her lllimle Mlnerul clue-lull Inlnlulu M t mule dlreillons slrlullne Sperlmen I plan. Isolated mnhodra Framework silicates olivlm (Mg 555a). I" . Vii“ la) Milan's-190' Slnglechalns Pymm- (Mmhfiio; — ’ L'hvg' ° Quartz (Sl(,)2) 4,, V 0 Common in all rock types (igneous, metamorphic, 2planlsal60‘and120' Boubhchains Sedl Illental‘y) Awhlbole UglMghlggguzzlofl); _ _){ . . t 333 0 Conc01dal fracture, no cleavage l!) . . . 1...... 9m" 0 Hexagonal pr1smat1c cr tals topped p ramlds. Mini Muscnvl :KN lllSi O 9K0“! . . a...m:;M.,;,,u;,$..mf,» 0 Includes chert, fllnt, Jasper, agate >4” (a) ) znlanesalsv“ Innedlmensloml _ .- . frameworks ‘ Feld Dfllw-(I leld :KAISI O ‘ :‘é‘mriii'fl‘ri " ‘ ' i315“ .,... . m 3 a V 4* figure 1.9 per! 2 ummaming rm mu. 5.1m” moo/w.» FitmmanamlCuviiuaHV Framework Silicates, continued 0 Feldspars 0 Most abundant mineral in Earth‘s crust, ~60% of the total weight occurring in all three rock types. 0 Two main subsets: 0 Potassium Feldspar (K—spar) 0 Plagioclase Feldspar — solid solution series where Ca and Na substitute for each other. End member compositions are: 0 Anorthite CaAlZSiZO8 — Ca Flag. 0 Albite NaAlSi308 — Na Flag. 0 Ca: Na ratio not random, function of temperature of crystallization and composition of parent magma Sheet Silicates 0 Mica group — sheet—like cleavage 0 Two main types: 0 Biotite — brown to golden to black 0 Muscovite — colorless to pink 0 Find in igneous and metamOIphic rocks mainly, too soft to survive Inost sedimentary proces 0 Recognized by their shiny s rfaces and by the ease with which they can be plucked out of a rock. 0 Clay mineral " formed by the decomposition of other aluminum—rich silicates specially Feldspars. Nonsilicates, continued 0 Carbonates (C03); 0 Carbonate complex anion 0 Calcite (#3) — CaCO3 0 Main constituent of limestone and marble (sedimentary rocks) 0 Can be formed inorganically — precipitated from sea water or ground water, like in caves 0 Can be formed organically — skeletal debris of some invertebrates (dead critters) 0 Dolomite — Cal\'Ig(C03)2 Isolated Tetrahedra - Example Olivine 0 FerroMg mineral (Fe, Mg), black to . C green \ D Found in igneous and metamOIphic ' ég . rocks 0 - >°D- Large un— _ blemiqhed Q Silica tetrahedron apex toward you (I Stllca tetrahedron apex away from . yen variety — - ' ' - - __ .Mg1+orre2+ per1dot ' . (a) Isolated . --' tetrahed ra (example: olivine) Chain Silicates 0 Double chain — amphiboles 0 FerroMg minerals (Fe, Mg), black to dark green 0 Common in igneous rocks, Inore silicic. 0 Single chain — pyroxenes 0 FerroMg minerals (Fe, Mg), black to dark green 0 Common in igneous rocks, Inore mafic. Carbonate ion (C0321 Oxygen Carbon Flame )4 on unammming Ema mu. am". new w H rmmmmmauy ...
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