CEE 331 FINAL REVIEW - CEE 331 FINAL REVIEW New Material I...

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CEE 331 FINAL REVIEW New Material I. Chapter 8: Pipe Flow – Laminar and Turbulent, Minor and Major Losses i. Single Pipes – three types of problems 1. Type I – specify desired flowrate or average velocity, determine the necessary pressure difference or head loss Examples: pp. 304, 306 2. Type II – specify applied driving pressure or head loss, determine the flowrate Example: 307 3. Type III – specify the pressure drop and flowrate, determine diameter of pipe needed (iteration required) Example: 309 ii. Multiple Pipe Systems 1. Pipes in series (310) a. Q 1 = Q 2 = Q 3 b. h Ltotal = h L1 + h L2 + h L3 2. Pipes in parallel (310) a. Q = Q 1 + Q 2 + Q 3 b. h L1 = h L2 = h L3 iii. Pipe Flowrate Measurement (with ideal situation h L = 0) 1. Orifice Meter - flat plate with a hole b/t 2 flanges of a pipe a. Q = C o Q ideal *Q ideal on page 312 b. A 0 = πd 2 /4 is the area of hole c. Orifice discharge coefficient, C o , is a function of β = d/D and the Reynolds number 2. Nozzle Meter (312, Example: 314) a. Q = C n Q ideal b. A n = πd 2 /4 is the area nozzle c. Nozzle discharge coefficient, C n , is a function of β = d/D and the Reynolds number 3. Venturi Meter – most precise, reduce head loss to minimum a. Q = C v Q ideal b. A T = πd 2 /4 is the throat area c. Venturi discharge coefficient, C v , is a function of β = d/D, the Reynolds number, shape of meter, etc II. Chapter 9: Boundary Layer Flow – Laminar and Turbulent, Drag i. Lift and Drag 1. Drag > resultant force in the direction of upstream velocity a. Eqn. 9.1, 383 b. Mechanisms responsible: shear stress and pressure difference c. Drag coefficient: C D , defined on 330 2. Lift > resultant force normal to the upstream velocity a. Eqn. 9.2, 328
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b. Lift Coefficient: C L , defined on 330 3. Area in drag and lift coefficients in the frontal area – the projected area seen by a person looking toward the object from a direction parallel to the upstream velocity * Sometimes the planform (“bird’s eye”) area is used ii. Characteristics of flow past an object 1. Reynolds number (331/332) a. Represents the ratio of inertial effects to viscous effects b. Nature of flow depends whether Re > 1 or Re < 1 c. Re = ρUl / μ, where l is length of plate and U is upstream velocity d. If Reynolds number is large, flow is dominated by inertial effects and viscous effects are negligible everywhere except a boundary layer very close to the plate and in the wake region i. Boundary layer has thickness δ << l, and is region where fluid velocity changes from upstream value of u = U to zero velocity on plate ii. Wake region is due entirely to viscous interaction b/t fluid and plate e. Large Reynolds number flow past a circular cylinder causes flow separation (333) iii. Boundary Layer Characteristics 1.
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