Katie Chambers Task 3.docx - Part A There were many major...

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Unformatted text preview: Part A: There were many major changes in race relations that resulted from Reconstruction. One major change was the passing of the Fifteenth Amendment that was brought about in 1869. The fifteenth amendment stopped the prejudice of voters only being white males. This amendment allowed “voters of any race, color and of previous condition of servitude” to vote. (Norton, 2015) The Fifteenth Amendment was passed in 1870. African Americans were thrilled with the passing of the Fifteenth Amendment as they were allowed to go places and do thing they normally wouldn’t get to go. “Enthusiastically, blacks went to the polls, voting Republican, as one man said, to “stick to the end with the party that freed me.”.” (Norton, 2015) Another major change to race relations that resulted from Reconstruction was the rise of the sharecropping system. After the 15th amendment was passed many land owners went into debt after loosing many of their slaves. Former slaves had no money to buy land so they resorted to renting the land. However, few white men would rent to blacks and in the South their was little ways to credit. “Black farmers and white landowners therefore turned to sharecropping, a system in which the landlord or a merchant “furnished” food and supplies, such as animals and seed to farmers, and received as payment a portion of the crop.” (Norton, 2015) This process proved to be disastrous. The agriculture slipped into depression. Blacks were bound to landowners and merchants which proved to be almost as aggressive as slavery. And many whites lost their land and had to follow black in sharecropping. “By Reconstruction’s end, over onethird of southern farms were worked by sharecropping tenants, whit and black.” (Norton, 2015) Finally, third major change to race relations that resulted from Reconstruction was Black codes. This meant that slaves would carry cards saying they were free slaves, following a very tight curfew and live in housing that a landowner provided. If they failed to follow these rules there were consequences. “It seemed to northerners that the South was intent on returning African Americans to servility and that Johnson’s Reconstruction policy held no one responsible for the war.” (Norton, 2015) Part B: There were many consequences of industrialization on America. Industrialization grew over night basically. This caused many consequences on labor in America. Americans were used to being for the quality work that they did; making them proud of their work. Industrialization workers instead became wageworkers. Wageworkers worked when they were hired and paid for the work not the quality. Not only did jobs open up for Americans they opened up for immigrants as well. “As a Massachusetts factory hand testified in 1879, “during working hours the men are not allowed to speak to each other, though working close together, on pain of discharge.”” (Norton, 2015) Due to the lacking quality of conditions in factories accidents occurred. Families would also suffer due to no disability insurance to replace lack of income, many families suffered. Companies reduced labor cost by hiring women and children to work as well. In 1890, several states passed laws that limited ages and hours of child laborers. However, due to these laws many families needed more incomes to come in to survive, so many parents lied about their children’s ages. Children who did not work in factories worked on the streets, cleaning shoes, peddling, and scavenging for wood, coal and furniture. Another consequence of industrialization was living conditions in America. Many factories move into cities bring along with it many working Americans. This caused cities to resort to tenement. Which is small living quarters for the working class. There could have been 12 people living in a tenement at a time. Owners would make the most of their tenements using the basement and attics as living spaces as well. Many injuries happened not only in factories but in tenements due to no windows. Many diseases were spread as well due to outhouses rarely being cleaned. Then there was the temperatures. Winters cold air would get into homes and summers brick homes would be so hot like an oven. Violence and crimes rose in cities making conditions worse. Part C1: The Progressive reforming society was the best way to ensure that growth in society could happen without destroying its morality. Progressives sought a higher role in the Federal Government to help with uplift the lower class. Progressive reforms were held together by religious underpinnings. The Social Gospel movement, “led by Protestant ministers Walter Rauschenbusch, Washington Gladden, and Charles Sheldon,” changed Christian churches by arbitrating industrial harmony and improving poor people’s conditions. This was a way for the church to help teach others how to treat others and show consequences for behaving wrong. The Social Gospel movement helped the church to spread the word of how to help. Part C2: There are many reform movements that helped to define the Progressive Era, however, two stand out. The First is the Labor Reform. This reform began its development by authorizing stricter factory inspection laws. This was a huge step forward because it limited the use of children as laborious factory workers, therefore giving them more of an opportunity to attend school. However, these new laws were not foolproof. Families were still lying about children’s ages so that they could continue to work and make more money to support their family. Prohibition reform was well known as the greatest political failure in the Progressive Era. The Prohibition reform was enacted to boost moral in communities where drunkenness and law breaking was considered a link. To help break this link, the Anti-Saloon League was founded to publicize this issue and its role in health and family problems. “By 1900, one-fourth of the nation’s population lived in “dry” communities prohibiting liquor sales.” (Norton, 2015) Even thought there were some areas considered “dry”, the illegal business of buying and selling alcohol thrived and lingered. These reverberations continued even after the passing of the Eighteenth Amendment. The Eighteenth Amendment “outlawed the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors.” (Norton, 2015) Part C3: A very direct and morally prevalent condition of the Progressive era was the attack on prostitution. The White Slave Traffic Act (Mann Act) of 1910 stated that any international or local exploitation of a woman for any immoral reasons was strictly prohibited and lawfully punishable. By 1915, any brothel or business associated to the act of prostitution were considered law breakers and would therefore be shut down. “Like prohibition, the Mann Act reflected the sentiment that government could improve behavior by restricting it.” (Norton, 2015) Middleclass reformers believed that it was not human nature but social environment that was the main source of evil in prostitution. The government tried to use their control to effect the social environment of many communities. By doing this they gained a lot of mistrust by failing to consider the sexual violence that existed in the home between family members or close connections. Part D: The American Imperialism lead to many conflicts that caused the United States to seize territories that they deemed important for growth. Two of those conflicts was the Hawaiian Annexation and the Spanish-American War. The United States saw Hawaii’s sugar as domestic and wanted to profit from it on their own terms. When facing the choice between a provisional government and the United States government, Queen Lili’uokalani, relinquished her authority to the U.S. government. By doing this, she set a precedent that the United States government was not to be trifled with and surrender was more honorable than prolonged imprisonment. However, President Grover Cleveland sensed foul play within this supposed overtaking of Hawaii by force and called for an investigation. Alas, it became known that Hawaii was “a strategic and commercial way station to Asia and the Philippines during the Spanish-American War.” (Norton, 2015) Realizing this, President William McKinley jumped on the opportunity to complete the annexation as to use it as an advancement for the United States military. The Spanish-American War was started to create an opportunity for America to gain new markets for extra production. Cuba was Spanish territory thus giving them complete access to Cuban markets. “Many businesspeople and farmers believed that ejecting Spain from Cuba would open new markets for surplus production.” (Norton, 2015) The U.S. military only had military control of Cuba for three years, however it still allowed Cuba and the United States to become allies. “Theodore Roosevelt and others too young to remember the bloody Civil War looked on war as adventure.” (Norton, 2015) Thus starting influencing the Spanish-American war and claiming 5, 462 brave men. Only 379 of those deaths were due to combat, the rest mostly due to diseases. Reference: Norton, M.B. (2015). A People & a Nation. Retrieved from Edelstein, A. (2016, October 20). Positive and Negative Effects of the Industrial Revolution. Retrieved August 12, 2018, from WGU (2016) “Progressivism” [Video] Retrieved from WGU (2016) “American Imperialism” [Video] Retrieved from ...
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