Unformatted text preview: Chapter Nine "The Changing South" The Physical Geography QuickTimeoe and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. The different physical and cultural geographic regions of the South Southern Appalachia is part of the South Shenandoah Valley (West Virginia) Tennessee Valley (Tennessee) Northern Georgia and Northern Alabama Virginia and Maryland were the original "cultural hearth" for southern plantation agricultural system Climate and soils favored the development of agricultural monocultures, tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, rice, etc. (later peanuts, and other crops) The role of location, and physical geography in the development of regions Northeastern U.S. early development away from agriculture toward commerce and manufacturing (good harbors located on Great Circle Route) South Atlantic Region and Gulf Coast States (more agricultural lands, warm climate, led toward plantation crops and importation of slaves from Africa reinforced social inequality) History of the South
Scots-Irish and Germans settled Appalachian region American Revolution in the South Cotton Plantation South, and its spread War Between the States Reconstruction Aftermath of Reconstruction Racial Segregation "A World Apart" Twentieth Century Transformations Virginia: South's Cultural Hearth Jamestown (first English settlement in Virginia) Williamsburg Today Williamsburg has been restored to serve as a living museum of Colonial Virginia Richmond Tidewater Culture Tobacco plantations "Tidewater Culture" Tobacco plantations, not much cotton until later English culture predominant in colonial period (each colony had a Royal Governor appointed by the King) Anglicans (Church of England) church attendance required All colonists were required to pay support, even if not members of the Church of England Virginia was "cultural hearth" for Southern culture, and the plantation system Culture spread from there into Carolinas and plantation cotton system spread westward into Tennessee, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, East Texas The Cotton Gin Cotton was not an important plantation crop until 1790s Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin Expands the cotton Increases slave states plantation system The First American Frontier And The Southern Expansion Cumberland Gap Western Maryland W. Pennsylvania Southwest Virginia, Western Carolinas N. Eastern Tennessee Eastern Kentucky Daniel Boone, Davie Crockett Cherokee Indians sided with the British during The Independent State of Franklin the American Revolution They attacked the Wataguans and other frontier settlers and carried out massacres These settlers fought back and decisively defeated the Cherokee The Cherokee lost much land to settlers when they and British were defeated From 17761790 the Wataguans declared The Independent State of Franklin and Western Expansion themselves as the Independent State of Franklin 1790 the state of Tennessee is formed and joins the United States Shortly after this date there was a town established in central Tennessee, named Franklin Was south of Nashville Tennessee which was the northern terminus of the Natchez Trace Natchez Trace was the early overland route to French Controlled Louisiana and Spanish Texas Indian Wars in Southeast after American Revolution and the War of 181214 18171819 War with Seminole Indians of West Florida Creek Indians also fight the Americans Andrew Jackson gains fame both as a hero of Battle of New Orleans, but also as leader of these campaigns against the Indians Jackson did not share Jefferson's belief that these eastern Indians would assimilate Whites coveted these Indian's lands Some Southern slaves who escape flee to West Florida There Spanish were still in control, and slavery was outlawed there Many of these ex slaves joined the Seminole Indians and they intermarried into that tribe First Seminole War Andrew Jackson's army destroys crops, steals livestock, and destroys Negro forts in the Apalachicola and Suwannee River regions. First Seminole War 18171819 1819 United States signs treaty with Spain and under terms of treaty United States takes control of Florida A Region Apart Rural Agricultural legacy. Slave system and aftermath meant that much less Plantation agriculture: flax, cotton, turpentine, rice, indigo dye, tobacco, sugar cane, hemp Slavery white foreign immigration to the South: As result white southern population is more homogeneous than North Sectionalism: Civil War resulted from differences in economics and culture Thomas Jefferson's ideal of Agrarian Republic The American Indians of the South The five civilized tribes: Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminoles Forcefully moved west in 1830s "Trail of Tears" Indians from east, displaced to the west, some changed from settled farming to buffalo hunting on horseback (much less work than farming, and more exciting way of life) Eastern Oklahoma: ("Ten Nations" ) Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seneca, Cadoan, Wichita, Osage, Shawnee, Seminoles Horses, had been introduced by the Spanish, and become the key to change away from agriculture to hunting Choctaw, Creeks, Cherokee Were settled farmers and The five civilized tribes Chicasaw, Seminole ranchers, (Thomas Jefferson's ideal of Assimilation) Tribes had own representative government, writing system. White settlers keep moving in on, and taking their lands illegally "The Trail of Tears" 1830 United States Congress passes law known as the Indian Removal Act President Andrew Jackson proceeds to have the U.S. Army assembles the Indians of the Southeastern United States and they are force marched to the west (Oklahoma Territory which is believed to be beyond the limit of Agricultural settlement) Map showing American Governments Forced Removal of Eastern Indian's The betrayal of the Jeffersonian ideal of Indian assimilation? "The Trail of Tears:" and the development of the Federal Gov's. Indian Reservation System 1830 The United States Congress passed the Indian Removal Act American Military forcefully moved these people to the west beyond the point where any future white agricultural settlement was then anticipated Oklahoma was the relocation area for these eastern Indian tribes. Today Eastern Oklahoma has these tribes remaining reservation lands More on Federal governments reservation system when we move on to the consider the Western United States Three Famous Tennesseans: Senator Thomas Hart Benton: opposed extension of slavery to Texas (this cost him his U.S. Senate seat) Sam Houston ("The Raven"): Hero of Texas Revolution. later opposed South's secession from the Union, and Texas' participation in Civil War David Crockett: opposed Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal and lost his seat in Congress, and then went off to Texas Pres. Andrew Jackson: 18291837 Was of Scots Irish decent Product of the American frontier Famous Indian fighter Famous for War of 1812 victory against the British at Battle of New Orleans 1830s: Betrays Thomas Jefferson's ideal for Indian assimilation Andrew Jackson backs Indian removal policies during his presidency Natchez Trace Early Frontier era there were no roads as we think of roads Natchez Trace: ancient Indian trail that became American pioneer trail west and south Connected Nashville Tennessee overland to Mississippi River at Natchez Mississippi Thomas Hart Benton's first home was on Natchez Trace Tennesseans going to The South's westward Migration: The Tennessean influence on Texas Before Tennessee became a state the settlers there declared Independent state of "Franklin" Leads to Town of Franklin Tenn. (upland town south of Nashville) Many settlers came from Tennessee to Texas Sam Houston was from Tennessee Town of Franklin, Texas (Robertson Co.) was founded by these Tennessean settlers Infrastructure and N. America Natchez Trace, as seen in a few places where the original trace (trail ) survives Natchez Trace Parkway near Franklin, Tennessee Interstate Highway 69 This planned Superhighway Runs in same direction as the Natchez Trace but a little north and further west from the original Natchez Trace) Runs through Memphis, Tennessee, and will extend from Ontario Canada all the way into Mexico Civil War Battle of Franklin, Tennessee: Fall of 1864 "Be always sure you are right, then go 17841836 Famous American hunter, Indian fighter, and frontiersman Family were French Huguenots (protestants) who left France and immigrated to Maryland, eventually to Virginia Grandfather was a signer of the "constitution" of Watagua Association 1780 Crockett's Grandfather and Grandmother and others were killed in massacre carried out by Creek and Cherokee Indians, when the "over mountain men" were away fighting British at Battle of Kings Mountain during American David Crockett
ahead." One Man's Fate 18271836 Crockett was elected to U.S. Congress from Tennessee Courageously opposed Congress's passage of Andrew Jackson's Indian Removal Act Because of this principled stand Crockett was defeated for reelection to Congress in 1836, then he left Tennessee and went to Texas He was quoted as addressing a gathering of those Tennesseans in his own party, who had successfully worked to defeat his reelection for his principled stand, with the following declaration: "You can all go to hell, and I shall go to Texas" March 6 1836: Crockett and 188 other defenders die fighting for Texas Independence at the Alamo The Trail of Tears
U.S. Army built a string of "removal forts" Forcibly assembled the Eastern Indians at these forts and Army force marched them west to Oklahoma territory Many Indians died on this journey Seminole Indians 1836 Seminole Indians resist American government's policy of their forced removal Leads to the Second Seminole War Seminoles fight the American Army and hold out until 1844 Seminoles are forced west and some go to Mexico Some of these Black Seminole Indians later become famous as scouts for the U.S. Army during the Wars fought between the Calvary and the Western Indians Southern Cotton Plantation Agriculture 1860: By the eve of the Civil War the cotton plantation system had spread South and West Limitations on Southern Industry after Civil War Northern interests gain control of Southern railroads Northern economic interests impose economic measures to insure that heavy industry cannot develop in the south "Pittsburg Plus" Birmingham Alabama is the only place that southern steel making possible (why?) South defeated militarily and occupied Reconstruction: Northerners take over much of southern economy: "carpet baggers" ExConfederate veterans (whites) were legally dis enfranchised, (could not legally vote) Freed black exslaves gained the vote, and much corruption and vote buying ensued by radical Republicans in charge of southern state governments When southern whites regain vote they forcefully denied the blacks right to vote (racial segregation) Ku Klux Klan, Black Codes, etc. American Civil War and its aftermath After Reconstruction "The Solid South" Bitter White southern reaction against the excesses of Reconstruction and corruption under control of the radical Republicans What is a "Yellow Dog Democrat"? One of those who were determined that they would never vote for a Republican Party candidate, that they swore the would vote for a "yellow dog" if it was run on the Democratic party ticket "Pittsburg Plus" This was made possible because the Northern Financial interests had gained control over the Southern Railroads after Civil War, during Reconstruction "a form of spatial price discrimination based on oligopolistic collusion. The mill price at one location determines the delivered price at all locations regardless of the plant from which delivery is actually made." ...
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