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Unformatted text preview: Chapter Nine (Part Two) "The Changing South" History of the South
Scots-Irish and Germans settled Appalachian region American Revolution in the South Cotton Plantation South, and its spread War Between the States Reconstruction Aftermath of Reconstruction Racial Segregation "A World Apart" Twentieth Century Transformations A Region Apart Rural Agricultural legacy. Slave system and aftermath meant that much less Plantation agriculture: flax, cotton, turpentine, rice, indigo dye, tobacco, sugar cane, hemp Slavery white foreign immigration to the South: As result white southern population is more homogeneous than North Sectionalism: Civil War resulted from differences in economics and culture Thomas Jefferson's ideal of Agrarian Republic Southern Cotton Plantation Agriculture 1860: By the eve of the Civil War the cotton plantation system had spread South and West Cotton Plantation Economy Limitations on Southern Industry after Civil War Northern interests gain control of Southern railroads Northern economic interests impose economic measures to insure that heavy industry cannot develop in the south "Pittsburg Plus" South defeated militarily and occupied Reconstruction: Northerners take over much of southern economy: "carpet baggers" ExConfederate veterans (whites) were legally dis enfranchised, (could not legally vote) Freed black exslaves gained the vote, and much corruption and vote buying ensued by radical Republicans in charge of southern state governments When southern whites regained vote they forcefully denied the blacks right to vote (racial segregation) Ku Klux Klan, Black Codes, etc. American Civil War and its aftermath After Reconstruction "The Solid South" Bitter White southern reaction against the excesses of Reconstruction and corruption under control of the radical Republicans What is a "Yellow Dog Democrat"? "Pittsburg Plus" This was made possible because the Northern Financial interests had gained control over the Southern Railroads after Civil War, and enforced this economic policy during Reconstruction "a form of spatial price discrimination based on oligopolistic collusion. The mill price at one location determines the delivered price at all locations regardless of the plant from which delivery is actually made." Share Cropper System (I) after Civil War share cropper system replaced slave's labor within the plantation system Continued to be muscle powered "hands on farming" "chopping cotton" (hoeing the weeds out of the cotton rows), and hand picking cotton, lots of people (both black and white) lived on the land providing this labor. How the Share Cropper System Worked Large cotton plantation land owners made a legal arrangement where each share cropper family had the use of forty acres of that plantation's land In exchange they shared with the land owner the proceeds from the sale of that share cropper's cotton crop, in payment for the share cropper's use of that farm land. Share Cropper System (II) This share cropper system lasted until after W.W.II Continued to be muscle powered "hands on farming" chopping (hoeing), and picking cotton, (horse and mules provided the other form of muscle power) Agchemicals, mechanization, ended this system Many of the share cropper farmers migrated north to industrial jobs in Detroit and elsewhere The Share Cropper Economy "Chopping Cotton" Sharecropper's house, and woman chopping cotton (i.e. hoeing weeds) in cotton field Plantation General Store and Post Office, Mumford, TX The goal of turning Agriculture into Agribusiness and replacing labor intensive aspects with mechanization Isaiah Bowman's work on "the Limits of Land Settlement" " The Pioneer Fringe" Bowman and other policy makers wanted those rural farm people, who would stay on the land, to have the benefits of urban world Did not want American small farmers to live like "European peasants" The Old way of Picking Cotton (picture is Northeast Texas, 1953) Modern Mechanical Cotton Picker Cotton in the changing south technology and resource use, mechanization (energy) and also agchemicals use America's Energy Intensive Economy An example of "resource substitution" In the past animal and human muscle power performed many farm and industrial tasks (often for low wages) BeforeCivil War in South slave labor performed these tasks After Civil War: the Share Cropping System Mid 20th Century: automation in industry, and mechanization and other innovations in agriculture, transform these processes, and old jobs disappear and new ones develop Need is for new sources of energy to continue to sustain these changes Cotton was a monoculture agriculture throughout much of post Civil War South Boll weevil: insect attacks the cotton boll, destroying it 19171918 Town of Enterprise , Alabama: two years farmer's cotton crops totally destroyed by this bug This forced farmers toward agricultural diversification, they grew peanuts: new crop highly beneficial economically (the statue placed in Enterprise's town square honors the bug that forced this economically beneficial change) A Statue honoring The Boll Weevil What ended this Southern sharecropping system? Agchemicals, mechanization, ended this system 19201945: farm tractors and trucks begin to take the place of horse and mule power 19451960: main era for this transformation Farm chemicals: (DDT) insecticides, herbicides, defoliants, made possible mechanical harvesting of the cotton crop (plus crop substitution, modern paved highway systems, Texas Farm to Market (FM) road system) Migration of both Southern Blacks and Whites to Northern Industrial Core Jobs Begins After World War One when American policy makers pass legislation greatly limiting new Foreign Immigration into U.S. Americans are away in military (opens opportunity for women and blacks in manufacturing jobs not previously open to them) Southern agriculture becomes mechanized agribusiness, and share cropping system ends World War Two: large number of working age Migration greatly increases after W.W.II when By the 1960's: Remember our discussion of Baltimore's transformation automation in manufacturing beginnings of movement to Sun Belt Limit jobs available for those who do not have skills and education Deer hunting Bear hunting Hunting: A Southern Tradition Duck hunting, goose hunting Dove, quail, turkey, woodcock, rabbit Possum, raccoon, bear, squirrel Alligators, frogs, turtles, etc. "Eat More Possum" This bumper sticker slogan poked fun at the vanishing "back woods" impoverished South Was parody of the 1970s bumper stickers that read "eat more beef" etc. Reality was the rural southern poor people (both Black and White) used to eat lots of wild animals when they were lucky enough to kill one Southern White Tail Deer Phase One: The Case of the White Tail Deer Before AngloAmerican settlement white tail deer were plentiful because Indians managed the ecosystem for them (fire was most important tool) Intensive agricultural land use led to destruction of white tail deer population in many areas (example Brazos County TX, which was upland cotton growing area, and all the white tail deer were wiped out) Both share croppers, and land use played a role Poor people were always in need of meat, and thus they hunted the deer to extinction in many areas The Restoration of The White Tail Deer
Phase Two of case study:
After W.W. II many people moved off the land, hunting pressure was greatly reduced (and better controlled) and much former agricultural land became deer habitat again Brazos County, upland cotton farm land reverts to ranch grazing land, and brush and forest regrowth begins Hunting becomes regulated sport In late 1940's Brazos Many species benefit from County: Texas Parks and Wildlife reintroduced white tailed deer, and protected them with hunting seasons and game wardens, habitat was now favorable to growth of this white tail deer population
this effort to conserve wildlife A Region Apart (I) Reconstruction: (18651876) Northern military troops occupy the South, White Southerners were disenfranchised, public elected official's corruption, theft of public funds, other excesses were identified with Republican party Racial Segregation really became codified and enforced throughout the South after the end of Reconstruction (after 1876) Experience created "Solid South" in which the Democratic party was completely dominant, up to the 1960s Racial segregation after end of Civil War up through the 1960s (in the North as well as South) Rosa Parks A Region Apart (II) Cultural and economic developments Country Music (Nashville) Stock Car Racing ( how did this racing begin?) Growth of southern cotton textile mills Another example of the movement of a Northern industry to the South Today much of this textile manufacturing is overseas Birmingham, Alabama Steel industry ("Pittsburg Plus") Late growth of Southern steel industry Large scale mechanized rice farming, soybean Changing Southern Agriculture farming ( these crops grow well in waterlogged riverine floodplain soils) (used in animal feeds) Grain Sorghum, originated in Africa, heat tolerant Mississippi Delta Louisiana, Southeast Texas, rice and soybeans Large scale, agribusiness chicken, hog, feeding operations Recreational hunting Stuttgart, Arkansas. Describes itself as the "Duck hunting Capital of the World" Mississippi Delta: rice and soybeans, plus winter flooded hardwood forested river bottoms Mississippi Delta Region north of Vicksburg MS where a wide area of the Mississippi river flood plain was developed to grow crops. First Cotton, but now also, Rice, and Soybeans Federal Government helped with large scale Mississippi River flood control projects Mississippi River Levies: these do not always protect these flood plain areas. Mississippi Delta Large scale agribusiness region today How did Delta Airlines begin, and where did it get its name from? Southern Large Scale Chicken Raising and Processing Industry Moved out of New England and to South Atlantic States, and then to South Maryland, Arkansas, Texas Location: Near the growing urban areas where most potential consumers are found Near the agricultural regions where the feed for chickens was now produced In region where labor was still available to process these chickens Answer to how the south is "changing"
Since 1970s major movement of new industry and people has been from the northeast to the south and southwest (from "rust belt" to the "sun belt") People who left the South for jobs in the North, or their children, have been moving back to the New South. Changing South: Growth of Industry South is generally more progrowth than the old Northeast U.S. South has attractive labor situation for industries End of racial segregation, helps move south closer to rest of the U.S. culturally Adequate energy for further growth (TVA) Milder southern winters make for greater efficiency, climate and amenities attract many northerners tired of long winters, high energy costs Taxes and other costs are lower than in Northeast End of Racial Segregation 1960s: Civil Rights movement Voting Rights Integration of the Public Schools, Colleges, and Universities Federal "Open Housing Legislation:" made things like Restrictive Covenants illegal All opened the way for minorities to be fully participating, contributing citizens 19602000 Migration of Northerners to Sun Belt Cities of the South Changed the character of many cities like Atlanta, Dallas, Houston (less southern in outlook) The Civil Rights Movement helped to make these cities people to move away from older world views Prosperity made it easier for all peoples to participate in the growing economies of these cities Changing Cotton Textile Industry Cotton was originally sent to cotton textile mills located in England Later cotton was sent to textile mills centered in New England By mid 20th century the U.S. cotton textile industry had moved to the South Today much of the U.S. cotton textile industry has been largely replaced by imported cotton textiles (like the U.S. Steel Industry) The pulp and lumber industry Pulp wood, trees are used to make paper Maine has a pulp industry: but trees grow much slower in northern climates, energy costs are higher for northern pulp wood processing plants Maine's pulp industry is losing out to southern pulp operations Pulp wood industry and other wood processing in South Shift began when major Northeastern newspaper chains, were seeking new sources of cheap newsprint, and they bought large tracts of forest land in the South Lumber industry also developed along with urban growth of south Southern Furniture Industry Centered in the Western N. Carolina Hardwood forests for lumber was locally available Labor to make furniture was also available Earlier: The U.S. furniture making had been centered in northeast and New England Today the American furniture making industry is being challenged by cheaper furniture being made in China Urbanized: much like the rest of the United Today's South: Less "A Region Apart" than in the Past States Many southern farms and plantations are large scale agribusinesses 1970s era northern migrants have changed the ethnic and religious character of Southern urban centers Many companies have relocated manufacturing and corporate headquarters to south (Raleigh /Durum NC, Atlanta GA, Dallas TX, Houston TX, Nashville TN, Memphis TN, etc.) Remember the discussion of Detroit as The Changing South coming to be known as "motown" when large numbers of people from South moved North for jobs in the Automobile Industry Today much of this Automobile manufacturing industry has dispersed Springhill, Tennessee, (just south of Franklin, Tennessee) is the main assembly plant for Saturn cars in North America BMW has American BMW assembly plant in South Carolina today United Parcel Service (UPS) Air parcel transport has become major industry today (with global coverage) Atlanta, Georgia: UPS Air Transport Hub Polar projection map (seen at right) shows the route for air parcels (to and from) Atlanta and Singapore Atlanta, Georgia Federal Express (FEDEX) FEDEX Air Freight HUB: Louisville KY World Headquarters Atlanta GA Why is Memphis Important? Canadian National Railroad extends down through the United States to Memphis Memphis is UPS Air Parcel Hub Interstate 69 is planned to connect Canada's Core with U.S. and with Mexico, and Memphis is at its central point Interstate Highway 69 This is the planned NAFTA Superhighway Runs in same direction as the old Natchez Trace I69 runs through Memphis, Tennessee, and will eventually extend from Ontario Canada all the way into Mexico Next Time Chapter 10 "The Southern Coastlands on the Subtropical Margin" Regional differences in the policy toward new energy sources and technologies, and toward urban growth and manufacturing Hurricanes and coastal zone hazards Some basic understandings of oil and gas industry Man and nature: some connections between the Texas Gulf Coast and the North American Arctic ecosystems ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course GEOG 301 taught by Professor Carter during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.
- Spring '08