Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 "The Southern Coastlands: on the Subtropical Margin" (Part One) Chapter 10 Map "The Southern Coastlands: on the Subtropical Margin" Overlaps With Chapter Nine Map "The Changing South" History of this Region Early History: Before 1900: the region was oriented mainly France and Spain controlled Florida and Gulf Coastal regions before the United States expanded its control to these regions toward farm production and export of farm products (cattle, cotton) After 1900: Oil era (especially after WWII) transformed the Gulf Coast Region Tourism began to transform Florida after 1900 Physical Geography of the Southern Coastlands and Subtropical Margin Climate is strongly influenced by maritime effect and the Gulf Stream (mild winters, hot humid summers) Long agricultural growing season Coastal locations are low elevation above sea level Broad shallow continental shelf off the Gulf Coast Onshore lands and offshore areas underlain with sedimentary rock (oil, natural gas production) Key themes from your textbook's chapter "Southern Coastlands" Textbook themes for "Southern Coastlands: the Subtropical Margin" Pursuit of amenities vrs. resource development Eastern GulfCoast and South Atlantic Coast focuses on amenities Western GulfCoast focuses on resource development Contact and growing economic interaction with Latin America Lecture themes for "Southern Coastlands: Subtropical Margin" Lecture themes, in addition to book's Economic change and diversification, resource substitution, global economy "no such thing as pristine nature," man is part of the ecosystem and Native Americans shaped nature before arrival of European colonial era History of American rice production Oil and gas history and production Today's energy and environmental issues (ANWR) and the snow goose threat to ecosystems Products of the Subtropical Margin Oranges and other citrus Sugar cane Rice Truck crops Cattle Fisheries: sport fishing and commercial salt water fishing Aquaculture (fish farming): shrimp, catfish Domesticated Rice
Domesticated rice originated in the Old World, and thus is part of the Columbian Exchange Most of us know very little of the history of rice farming in North America N. America's Rice plantations began on the Sea Islands and the coasts of Carolina's and Georgia: (The Gullah) This rice plantation culture relied of African slaves who had specialized in growing rice in Africa before being captured and sold into slavery These rice farmers came from the West Coast of Africa (in the location that is now Sierra Leone) Rice production as part of the changing South's agriculture N. American Rice originally was grown only in limited area coastal S. Carolina and Georgia Rice was then a slave labor plantation crop Was originally done with hand labor: planting, harvesting,threshing (notice the Chinese coolie hats and use of scythes) Sierra Leon in West Africa Rice is still a important crop grown in Sierra Leon today The Gullah and Rice Farming Good example of "Columbian Exchange" Today the era of slave labor is ended, and large both the domesticated rice plant and the Africans, and their knowledge of it were brought to North America) scale highly mechanized rice farming has relocated to other regions The Gullah descendants of these early colonial rice farmer slaves remain in the region where they played a key role in the beginning of North American rice farming They proudly retain much of their African cultural roots today American rice farming today: Large scale, highly mechanized agribusiness Overseas rice farming American Rice in the Global Economy is often still labor intensive Rice farming is a key aspect of Asian culture identity Economies of scale mean that American rice can be sold cheaper than Asian rice, and threatens local rice farmers Texas Coast and Louisiana Rice Rice is also grown in Arkansas, and in other interior locations ( including the Central Valley of California) Rice grows well in soils that are unsuited for crops that cannot tolerate wet or saturated soil conditions ( i.e. Mississippi Delta ) In Texas rice growing season is so long that rice can be "double cropped" (machine combined rice plants are able to regrow and successfully produce a second seed head in same growing season for the rice farmer to harvest) Migratory waterfowl feed in these rice fields in the fall Complex, and sometimes unanticipated interactions within today's globalizing world Rice farming + snow geese + global oil demand + the arctic wildlife refuge oil development controversy = insights into politics of human action (resource development vrs. amenities) Energy resource development is a key theme in this course's lectures OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Producing Countries) OPEC is a cartel major oil producing countries meet and agree to fix the international price of oil First began to be formed in 1961 Was said to be modeled on Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) 1970's OPEC Oil Crisis, oil goes from 2 dollars per barrel, to over 40 dollars 1970s: U.S. Alaska: man and nature, and the oil crisis in relation to debate over ANWAR
begins oil development on North Slope in Alaska and TransAlaska Pipeline built to pacific port of Valdez Autarky versus Free Trade
Earlier oil crisis in 1973 (begins with war in Middle East, U.S. aids Israel) OPEC declares an embargo, cuts off oil to U.S., world price of oil increases from $ 2 per barrel to over $40 per barrel United States decides to drill for oil on North Slope of Alaska to reduce dependence on imported oil The Arctic Tundra Ecosystem Subsoil moisture remains frozen all year long Surface layer thaws out and low vegetation especially adapted to this environment grows during Summer months Drilling was done in the winter using temporary ice roads and ice drilling pad built over the tundra (these melt away in summer to leave tundra intact) Oil drilling and Production at Prudhoe Bay Alaska Producing wells and the pipelines do not destroy the permafrost and tundra Politics and The Environment "The Pipeline Will Do For The Caribou What The Railroad Did For The Buffalo!" (1972 slogan of anti transAlaska pipeline environmental activists) Entire 800 mile long pipeline TransAlaska Oil Pipeline is elevated above ground Migrating caribou now cross under the pipeline Herd using Prudhoe Bay area for calving ground has grown in numbers since 1970s ANWAR Arctic National Wildlife Refuge The proposed oil drilling would be in the area where another migratory caribou herd's summer calving ground is located In the 1970s antidrilling advocates warned that any arctic coastal plain drilling threatened destruction of the Alaskan Caribou herds Snow Geese and ANWR How much of ANWR would be within the area of oil drilling? The Snow Goose: Chen Hyperborea "Goose from Beyond the North Wind" Snow Geese and other wildlife
Snow goose and its seasonal migration, illustrates complex interactions between man and nature in N. America Lesser Snow Goose Migration and Population Problems
point where they are destroying Arctic nesting habitat (should be 1.5 million but now five million birds on Central Flyway) How does this problem compare to the example of the situation of the White Tailed Deer in The Changing South? Snow goose population has increased to A more real ecological threat to the arctic tundra ecosystems SNOW GEESE ON THE ARCTIC COASTAL PLAIN AT ANWR What is the Solution to the Problem? Urgent need to hunt and control snow goose populations in wintering areas in United States Special conservation snow goose hunting season runs all the way into the Spring (March) and hunters are allowed a 20 bird daily limit Hunting: is needed human action to maintain the balance of nature North American Pintail Duck Large scale rice farming and the ecological balance of nature Rice fields offer abundant food and habitat for wintering migratory birds Federal government's National Wildlife Refuge system has also made possible the great increase in snow goose numbers Populations of ducks and geese are related to mankind's changes in the ecosystem Hunting plays a role in maintaining a needed control on these migratory bird populations Snow Geese and ANWR Oil and the question of drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge North slope Alaska's arctic plain at Prudhoe Bay: oil and gas development was successfully done in 1970s TransAlaska oil pipeline built from North Slope to Pacific seaport of Valdez Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is size of North Carolina, (is home to many species of birds and animals most of whom migrate there during the summer months) Only very small area of ANWR would be effected, (oil drilling conducted in winter, minimal impact) Rice farmers and others derive revenue from hunting Sale of required water fowl hunting stamps, state hunting license fees, and 10% Federal tax levied on sale of guns, boat fuels, ammunition, raises millions of dollars for wildlife habitat preservation , and related activities Revenues from waterfowl hunting leases offer strong economic incentive to farmers to manage their agricultural operations for waterfowl habitat President Theodore Roosevelt (TR) Leader in setting up National Forest System Set up National Parks Set up Federal Wildlife Refuge System An Easterner who was very interested in the West and in the outdoors. A famous hunter: (the story of how the "teddy bear" began) Native of France who Jean Jacques Audubon: 17831851 came to America in 1803 Began to paint pictures from nature of all the birds and animals of North America Spent his whole life on this great work Audubon Society was founded in his memory, members interested in nature, and work on wildlife conservation Audubon's Prints of the Birds of North America National Wildlife Refuge System and modern mechanized agriculture What are the main points to be derived from this lecture's discussion of Snow Geese and the fight over the question of oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR)? Historical Geography of Oil and Natural Gas Oil era began in W. Pennsylvania Texas oil era began with "Spindletop" field near Beaumont Texas, 1901 Onshore era of well drilling predominant to 1950s After 1950s offshore oil gas drilling discoveries led to modern era of deep exploration and development TRC and the regulation of oil and gas development and production
Texas Railroad Commission (TRC) (the state agency that regulates oil and gas exploration and development in Texas) Price of oil and gas was stabilized and other regulations enforced by TRC Originally oil industry was totally unregulated This situation led to serious economic problems, pollution, and waste of oil and gas Oil and Natural Gas Found in sedimentary rock formations Decayed organic materials in these sedimentary rocks subjected to heat and pressure formed hydro carbons These hydrocarbons tend to migrate upward through the porous rock strata Hydrocarbons are then trapped and concentrated by overlying impermeable rock layers and by salt domes Michael T. Halbouty: 19092004 Was present during the boom years of Texas oil development TAMU grad. class of 1930 Went on to become a "Wildcatter" independent oil man, and discovered over fifty major oil fields Halbouty Building on TAMU campus is named after him Was the main force in bringing Bush Library to TAMU The Role of The Salt Dome (Michael T. Halbouty discovered this) Eastern North America Continental Shelf Extension of continental landmass offshore underwater Relatively shallow waters (up to about 1000 feet deep) Beyond it is the realm of deep ocean floor (very deep water) Oil and gas and important fisheries are found on the Continental Shelf Offshore Oil Platforms Now are often in deep waters far offshore Began in near shore in shallow waters Establishment of the UN Convention on Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) Remember the chapter seven lecture example of New England and Atlantic Canada Fisheries, (Grand Banks) territorial jurisdiction to halt "over fishing" (1970s) (UNCLOS) The push to explore and produce oil and gas on the U.S. Gulf Coast continental shelf offshore platforms began in 1950s, beyond 12 mile limit by the 1960s led to U.S. diplomatic declaration of a 200 mile zone of economic control of sea bed ...
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This note was uploaded on 03/25/2008 for the course GEOG 301 taught by Professor Carter during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.
- Spring '08