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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 "The Southern Coastlands: on the Subtropical Margin" (Part Two) The transformation of the "subtropical margin" region The New South (1970s to present) : diversification away from dependence on agriculture, oil, gas, petrochemicals toward other new industries Houston, Miami, New Orleans, seaports connecting with Latin America and international financial centers, Austin, and Dallas, Houston electronics computers, auto assembly, aircraft manufacture Atlantic and Gulf Coast Hurricanes Begin as tropical low pressure waves moving west in Atlantic off the coast of North Africa Sun's energy transferred into evaporative moisture, which fuels the Hurricane development as system moves west Hurricane winds can reach close to 200 miles per hour in a category 5 hurricane The Galveston Hurricane of 1900 Hurricane Storm Surge This is the most deadly and destructive hurricane danger The reason why authorities order coastal evacuations ahead of the landfall of a hurricane Most threatened point is that area of shoreline to right front of approaching hurricane's eye making landfall on the coast Sea water being driven by circular storm winds piles up in surging mass of water 10 to 30 feet higher than normal sea level which sweeps ashore Almost nothing can withstand the deadly and destructive force of the storm surge New Orleans, Louisiana (this slide dates from before Katrina) Sea Port of New Orleans is located where Mississippi R. has built coastal delta Much of the city is up to eight feet below sea level Is protected by manmade flood levees If a category 5 Hurricane were to hit the coast so that storm surge was centered on New Orleans the Storm Surge would top these levees and the New Orleans would be flooded up to 28 feet deep, destroying city and killing up to tens of thousands of people This danger is made even worse by the loss of coastal wetlands which in past could have served to absorb much of the storm surges force Hurricane Katrina Storm Surge If you have waited until now to evacuate from your coastal location, as ordered, you are probably soon to be dead Wetlands destruction through human actions: Louisiana coastal oil development canals Coastal Land Subsidence Not only are coastal marsh wetlands and swamps being damaged by human activity More serious problem is the one caused by natural land subsidence Recently in the news: Scientific Report says Gulf coastal lands along Louisiana and Texas Coast are sinking relative to the ocean at much faster rate than previously believed Answer is theme for the course and addresses the themes for this chapter of your textbook It requires the recognition of nature as largely a result of human activities, past and present, and future. Your instructor believes there is the need to emphasize "wise use" of resources, that seeks to maintain balance, and both active human management and preservation of nature (our amenities depend upon man's wise use of these "natural" ecosystems) The Role of The Salt Dome Sulfur: another valuable natural resource associated with salt domes Commercially valuable deposits sulfur collect in underground areas similar to the oil reservoirs associated with salt domes These sulfur deposits are found underground concentrated directly above these large salt domes Some times they are located at considerable depth (tens of thousands of feet below the surface) How is this sulfur mined? A series of well bores are drilled down through the overlying rock strata into the underground deposit of solid sulfur Super heated water is then pumped under pressure down some of the wells and this melts the sulfur which flows up through the other bore holes, to be cooled and returned to its solid mineral state Diagram: Salt Dome and Sulfur Sulfur after being pumped to surface and allowed to cool Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) Oil "Bulk" Transportation The bulk of the oil transported (62%) is using maritime transportation. The Persian Gulf is a major origin and from this point maritime routes are reaching Europe through the Suez Canal, Japan through the Strait of Malacca and North American through the Cape of Good Hope. World Politics and American Energy Security This Pie Chart shows oil from the Americas 13 % as being "more secure" Venezuela's Hugo Chavez? Bolivia's Evo Morales? U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Salt Dome Oil Storage Caverns The Storage and Pipeline System for the U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve Multiple Uses for Salt Domes SPR storage of oil Storage of imported LNG Safe disposal of oil field waste Salt Domes are found "off shore" as well as "on shore," and serve to create faults and oil and gas traps U.S. LNG Terminals and Gas Transmission Pipelines LNG in the Pacific Rim What are the regional differences in acceptance of plans for wind farms? When Bush was governor, Texas passed state law mandating development of alternative energy Texas controls offshore zone ten miles out (Federal Government red tape does not limit Texas State government's authorizing this electrical power wind farm's development within zone) Why is this true in the case of Texas? East Coast proposals for Wind Farms to generate renewable energy Would generate electrical energy near Megalopolis where many electrical consumers live Would reduce current dependence on natural gas, or on coal based electrical power Would decrease dependence on overseas imported oil and natural gas (LNG) NIMBY (Not in My Back Yard) "Such antiwind energy efforts are not guided by public policy concerns, but by NotInMyBackyard sentiments that lead wind energy opponents to try time and again to delay or derail a project. Sen. Warner, a cosponsor of an earlier failed effort to delay development of the Cape Wind offshore project in Massachusetts, is said to have family members who own property in Nantucket." (quote from web article Congressional Attacks Pick Up Again Against Wind Power Nov 29, 2005 http://www.renewableenergyaccess.com) Massachusetts Senators Ted Kennedy, John Kerry, also opposed plan for Cape Cod offshore wind farm in Nantucket Bay Avery Island LA and Tabasco Sauce This island on the coast of Louisiana was formed Avery Island, Louisiana by a salt dome. (is located in coastal marshes) Avery island is the home of the Mclhenny company that makes Tabasco Sauce. The hot peppers are grown and processed on the island The Island is a world famous wildlife and nature reserve. Because it sits on a salt dome there has been development of oil and gas wells on Avery Island. Great care has been taken by the oil companies to preserve the unspoiled nature reserve character of Avery Island The transformation of the "subtropical margin" region The New South (1970s to present): Large scale migration from Rust Belt to Sun Belt Diversification away from dependence on agriculture, oil, gas, petrochemicals toward other new industries Houston, Miami, New Orleans, seaports connecting with Latin America and international financial centers, Austin, and Dallas, Houston electronics computers, auto assembly, aircraft manufacture Eastern half of subtropical margin
Coastal S. Carolina and Coastal Georgia Early colonial center for rice and indigo plantations Today is center for resorts and retirement communities Eastern half of subtropical margin
Florida Became a resort destination in late 19th century, later a retirement destination Today, large Cuban and other Caribbean population, and is contact point for trade with Caribbean and Latin America Residents resist oil and gas development offshore because they view it as threat to environment ( life style) etc. Sea Islands, Georgia Florida Became a resort destination in late 19th century, later a retirement destination Residents resist oil and gas development offshore because they view it as threat to environment ( life style) etc. Limestone bed rock "karst" and the formation of Sinkholes Barrier Islands Texas Coast has a series of offshore low sand islands and peninsulas. Galveston Island, Matagorda Island, Padre Island, Bolivar Peninsula Southeastern Atlantic seacoast (Virginia, Carolinas, and Georgia) also has similar barrier islands. Bays and estuaries behind these islands Aransas National Wildlife Refuge One of eleven NWR Refuges set up along Gulf Coastal Plain Special focus is preserving wintering grounds for endangered Whooping Crane 150 Whooping Cranes now migrate each year from Northern nesting grounds in Northern Canada to winter at Aransas Wildlife Refuge Whooping Cranes Migration Wildlife Biologists have gone to extraordinary lengths to increase Whooping Crane numbers Intercoastal Waterway Illustrates importance of Water Transport United States Corps of Engineers: long term Federal Government infrastructure project Series of manmade dredged channels and dredged channels connecting to bays From Brownsville Texas all the way up the Atlantic Seaboard to Massachusetts Intercoastal Waterway Texas and Gulf Coast Bridge Point Condominium Tower Individual units sell for $500,000 A 25 story tall skyscraper that is literally "built on a foundation of sand" Storm could sweep all this away What if a Category 5 Hurricane were to hit South Padre Island? Padre Island National Seashore Houston, Texas Opening of Houston Ship Channel made Houston a seaport Galveston was the earlier seaport, now no longer serves "break in bulk" purpose Major Petrochemical industry is centered along Houston Ship Channel Baytown TX Ecology of North America Most of North America's urban population is located on or near continent's sea coasts Urban sprawl, and modern mechanized agriculture have both transformed coastal ecosystems Without the transformation of North America from rural world to urbanized agribusiness based high energy economy, both ecology and people would be worse off The American National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges Federal Government's system setting aside Federal lands as Wildlife Preserves developed in connection with the idea of National Parks as excluding human interference with nature including man made fires The Prairie Chicken contrasts with the Snow Goose in its ecological adaptability Indian's Prairie Chicken Dance also called "The Grass Dance" Indian fire was used Original Range of the American Bison and the Role of Indian Fire Ecology to modify natural ecosystems for human purposes Man and nature were, and are, interconnected Original Buffalo Range was extended through this use of fire to make grass for buffalo (hunting) The Prairie Chicken (Grouse) Example of a wild species that was closely adapted to the earlier Indian fire based prairie ecosystem Today two subspecies Heath Hen is extinct Attwater's Prairie Chicken near extinction due to habitat loss Texas A&M University is working to preserve the highly endangered Attwater's Prairie Chicken TAMU Professor Nova Silvie and students are operating a captive breeding program The National Attwater's Prairie Chicken Refuge is located at Sealy, TX Summary and review of some main points stressed in this chapter's two lectures Energy development: Oil, Gas, in Gulf Coastal region (and now in ANWR) Man and Wildlife interconnect in complex ways Modern mechanized farming of rice, and the (examples of Snow Geese, and Prairie Chickens, added to earlier the example of the Whitetail Deer) creation of National Refuge System (have had unanticipated consequences, Snow Geese have adapted to these developments and increased, are threatening to destroy their arctic nesting grounds Mankind's location on the coastal shore line has increased risks from hurricanes, and land subsidence, and development of coastal shores Some of the people you should know Thomas Hart Benton (again!) President Andrew Jackson David (Davie) Crockett for Exam Two! Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt Michael T. Halbouty The Gulla People The Scots Irish Jean Jacques (John James) Audubon The "over mountain men" ...
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- Spring '08
- The American