Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 (1).pdf - Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until

Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 (1).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 Biographies, Summaries, Analyses Made by Tímea Lukács 1 Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 Contents 1. Novels Daniel Defoe ....................................................................................................................................................... 5 Moll Flanders ................................................................................................................................................. 5 Robinson Crusoe ........................................................................................................................................... 7 Laurence Sterne, A Sentimental Journey .......................................................................................................... 13 Henry Fielding, Tom Jones ............................................................................................................................... 14 Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice ..................................................................................................................... 19 Sir Walter Scott, Waverley ................................................................................................................................ 24 Charlotte Bronte, Jane Eyre .............................................................................................................................. 27 Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights ..................................................................................................................... 34 William Makepeace Thackeray, Vanity Fair .................................................................................................... 41 Charles Dickens, Great Expectations ............................................................................................................... 46 George Eliot, Middlemarch .............................................................................................................................. 53 Thomas Hardy, Tess of the D'Urbervilles ......................................................................................................... 58 2. Dramas William Wycherley, A Country Wife ................................................................................................................ 65 Richard Brinsley Sheridan, The School for Scandal ......................................................................................... 69 3. Poetry Restoration Abraham Cowley, Ode Upon His Majesty’s Restoration and Return .............................................................. 72 John Dryden ...................................................................................................................................................... 72 Mac Flecknoe .............................................................................................................................................. 73 Song for St. Cecilia’s Day ........................................................................................................................... 73 To Mrs. Anne Killigrew (x) .......................................................................................................................... 74 John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, A Satyr Against Reason and Mankind .................................................... 75 1st Half of the 18th Century Alexander Pope ................................................................................................................................................. 75 The Rape of the Lock ................................................................................................................................... 75 Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot .............................................................................................................................. 77 An Essay on Criticism (Part 1) .................................................................................................................... 78 An Essay on Man (Epistle 2) ....................................................................................................................... 79 2 Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 Jonathan Swift ................................................................................................................................................... 80 Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift ................................................................................................................. 80 Stella’s Birthday .......................................................................................................................................... 81 A Description of a City Shower ................................................................................................................... 82 John Gay, The Shepherd’s Week ....................................................................................................................... 82 James Thomson ................................................................................................................................................. 82 The Seasons (Autumn) (x) ............................................................................................................................ 82 Ode: Rule Britannia .................................................................................................................................... 82 2nd Half of the 18th Century Samuel Johnson, The Vanity of Human Wishes .............................................................................................. 83 Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village .......................................................................................................... 84 Thomas Gray ..................................................................................................................................................... 86 Elegry Written in a Country Church-Yard .................................................................................................. 86 Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College ................................................................................................. 90 William Collins .................................................................................................................................................. 91 Ode on the Poetical Character (x) ................................................................................................................ 91 The Passions (x) ........................................................................................................................................... 91 An Ode for Music (x) ................................................................................................................................... 91 William Cowper ................................................................................................................................................ 91 The Task ...................................................................................................................................................... 91 The Castaway .............................................................................................................................................. 92 Robert Burns ..................................................................................................................................................... 93 Holy Willie’s Prayer .................................................................................................................................... 94 To a Mouse .................................................................................................................................................. 95 Charlotte Smith, Elegiac Sonnets (aaa) ............................................................................................................. 96 Romanticism William Blake ................................................................................................................................................... 96 The Songs of Innocence (“Introduction”, “Chimney Sweeper”, “Lamb”, “Tyger”, “London”) ................. 97 William Wordsworth ...................................................................................................................................... 101 Lines Composed a Few Miles above Tintern Abbey ................................................................................ 102 Ode: Intimations of Immortality ................................................................................................................ 103 The Solitary Reaper ................................................................................................................................... 105 We are Seven ............................................................................................................................................. 106 I Wandered Lonely .................................................................................................................................... 107 Samuel Taylor Coleridge ................................................................................................................................ 107 The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner ........................................................................................................... 108 Kubla Khan ................................................................................................................................................ 111 Frost at Midnight ....................................................................................................................................... 113 3 Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 John Keats ....................................................................................................................................................... 114 Ode to a Nightingale .................................................................................................................................. 114 Ode to Psyche ............................................................................................................................................ 116 Ode on a Grecian Urn ................................................................................................................................ 117 La Belle Dame Sans Mercy ....................................................................................................................... 119 Percy Bysshe Shelley ...................................................................................................................................... 119 Mont Blanc ................................................................................................................................................ 120 Ozymandias ............................................................................................................................................... 121 Ode to the West Wind ............................................................................................................................... 122 George Gordon Byron ..................................................................................................................................... 123 Don Juan (Canto I) .................................................................................................................................... 123 Manfred ..................................................................................................................................................... 128 Victorian Age Alfred Tennyson ............................................................................................................................................. 129 The Lady of Shalott ................................................................................................................................... 129 The Lotos-Eaters ....................................................................................................................................... 131 Robert Browning ............................................................................................................................................. 133 My Last Duchess ....................................................................................................................................... 133 Porpyria’s Lover ........................................................................................................................................ 134 Elizabeth Barrett Browning, Sonnets from the Portuguese ............................................................................ 135 Dante Gabriel Rossetti, The Blessed Damozel ............................................................................................... 136 Christina Rossetti ............................................................................................................................................ 137 Song: Shen I am dead… ............................................................................................................................ 137 In an Artist’s Studio ................................................................................................................................... 137 4 Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 5 Daniel Defoe Biography Daniel Defoe (ca. 1660 – 24 April 1731), born Daniel Foe, was an English trader, writer, journalist, pamphleteer and spy, who gained fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularize the form in Britain, and, along with others such as Samuel Richardson, is among the founders of the English novel. A prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than 500 books, pamphlets and journals on various topics (including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology and the supernatural). He was also a pioneer of economic journalism. Moll Flanders Summary The full title of Moll Flanders gives an apt summary of the plot: "The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders, Etc. Who was born in Newgate, and during a life of continu'd Variety for Threescore Years, besides her Childhood, was Twelve Year a Whore, five times a Wife (whereof once to her own brother), Twelve Year a Thief, Eight Year a Transported Felon in Virginia, at last grew Rich, liv'd Honest and died a Penitent. Written from her own Memorandums." Moll Flanders is born to a mother who has been convicted of a felony and who is transported to America soon after her birth. As an infant, Moll lives on public charity, under the care of a kind widow who teaches her manners and needlework. She grows into a beautiful teenager and is seduced at an early age. Abandoned by her first lover, she is compelled to marry his younger brother. He dies after a few years, and she marries a draper who soon flees the country as a fugitive from the law. She marries yet again and moves to America, only to find out that her husband is actually her half-brother. She leaves him in disgust and returns to England, where she becomes the mistress of a man whose wife has gone insane. He renounces his affair with Moll after a religious experience. Moll's next marriage offer is from a banker whose wife has been cheating on him. Moll agrees to marry him if he can obtain a divorce, and meanwhile she travels to the country and marries a rich gentleman in Lancashire. This man turns out to be a fraud--he is as poor as she is--and they part ways to seek their fortunes separately. Moll returns to marry the banker, who by this time has succeeded in divorcing his wife. He dies soon after, however, and Moll is thrown back upon her own resources once again. She lives in poverty for several years and then begins stealing. She is quite talented at this new "trade" and soon becomes an expert thief and a local legend. Eventually she is caught, imprisoned, and sentenced to death. In prison at Newgate, she reunites with her Lancashire husband, who has also been arrested. They both manage to have their sentences reduced, and they are transported to the colonies, where they begin a new life as plantation owners. In America, Moll rediscovers her brother and her son and claims the inheritance her mother has left her. Prosperous and repentant, she returns with her husband to England at the age of seventy. Analysis Defoe wrote Moll Flanders at a time when there was still little precedent for the novel as a genre, and he accordingly felt compelled to justify his book by presenting it as a true story. He stages his novel therefore as the memoir of a person who, though fictional, is a composite of real people who experienced real events in Defoe's London. (Of course, part of the comic effect stems from the fact that no one person could have experienced all that Moll does.) He draws on the established conventions of the rogue biography--a genre that presented the lives and escapades of real criminals in semi-fictionalized and entertaining ways. Moll Flanders concerns itself above all with the practical, day-to-day exigencies of a woman who enjoys no longstanding social stability or financial security, allowing the accumulation of factual detail to stand as evidence for the writing's truthfulness, if not its literal truth. His language, which is also Moll's throughout, is plain and unliterary. The prose is not allusive, ornamental, or metaphoric, relying rather on the combination of journalistic accuracy and a strong personal voice for their effects of authenticity. Required Primary Readings for Literature from the Restoration until 1890 6 Defoe emphasizes in his Preface to the novel that the tale is meant to convey a serious moral. But the novel itself, which details its heroine's scandalous sexual and criminal adventures, keeps moralizing (particularly traditional Christian moralizing) to a minimum. Her immoral actions have no real consequences, and the narrative tends to excuse her behavior by referring it to material necessity. If Moll Flanders is surprisingly unmoralizing, Defoe's indulgent attitude toward his heroine accords with the reaction of most readers. E.M. Forster called the book "a masterpiece of characterization," and it is a testimony to the psychological nuance of her character, as well as to its liveliness, that we like Moll more than we censure her. Defoe creates in Moll a character of limitless interest, in spite of her unconcealed ethical shortcomings. His vision is one that values the personal qualities of self-reliance and perseverance, and that dignifies human labor, even when it takes the form of crime. Defoe's own attitude toward his character and her escapades is less than clear, as is his final verdict on the questions and conflicts her life story raises. What emerges unequivocally in the novel is Defoe's fascination with moral ambiguity, and with the isolated life of the individual human being. Moll Flanders illustrates unflinchingly the kinds of motives that rise to the surface in human life under hardship and duress, and the frankness with which Moll discusses her own motivations is an appeal to their universality. The book therefore generates a conflict between an absolute Christian morality on the one hand and the conditional ethics of measurement and pragmatism that govern the business world, as well as the human struggle for survival, on the other. Characters Moll Flanders - The narrator and protagonist of the novel, who actually goes by a number of names during the course of her lifetime....
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