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Promoting Emotion and Behavior Regulation in Male Prison Inmates:A Secondary Data Analysis From a Randomized Controlled Trial Testingthe Efficacy of the Growing Pro-Social ProgramNélio Brazão, Daniel Rijo, Maria do Céu Salvador, and José Pinto-GouveiaUniversity of CoimbraThis article describes a secondary data analysis collected from inmates who participated in an indepen-dent randomized controlled trial, testing the efficacy of the Growing Pro-Social (GPS) Program. Thecurrent study aimed to test the program’s ability to increase, on one hand, cognitive reappraisal (adaptiveemotion regulation strategy) and, on the other hand, decrease expressive suppression (maladaptiveemotion regulation strategy) over time. It was also assessed if the GPS was capable of reducingdisciplinary infractions committed by inmates over time. Participants were randomized to the GPStreatment (n121) or the control group (n133). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire wascompleted at baseline, at mid-treatment, at post-treatment and at 12-months’ follow-up. Disciplinaryinfractions were collected from prison records during the 12 months before the beginning of the program,during the GPS’s 12-month length and during the 12 months after treatment completion. Treatmenteffects were analyzed with latent growth curve models. Concerning cognitive reappraisal, while treat-ment participants showed a significant increase, controls presented a decrease over time. For expressivesuppression, the treatment group presented a significant decrease, and the control group showed nochange over time. Treatment participants also presented a significant decrease in the number ofdisciplinary infractions and in the number of days in punishment, while controls showed no change oran increase over time. This study showed the GPS’s ability to promote emotion and behavior regulation,which contributes not only to inmate’s interpersonal adjustment, but also to a more efficient managementof the prison system.Public Significance StatementDisciplinary infractions are highly prevalent in prisons and introduce significant costs to correctionalsystems. Research has shown that inmate’s emotion regulation difficulties may play an important rolein prison misconduct, emphasizing the need to address emotion and behavior regulation in offender’streatment programs. This study demonstrated the efficacy of a rehabilitation program in reducingdisciplinary infractions and emotion regulation difficulties in male prison inmates, contributing notonly to inmate’s interpersonal adjustment, but also to a more efficient management of prisons.Keywords:behavior regulation, emotion regulation, growing pro-social program, latent growth curvemodels, male prison inmatesThe efficacy of cognitive–behavioral group interventions in therehabilitation of young and adult offenders has been well documented(Bonta et al., 2011;Koehler, Lösel, Akoensi, & Humphreys, 2013;Raynor, Ugwudike, & Vanstone, 2014;Trotter, 2013). Among the