Ch. 28 - Chapter 28 Protists Book Notes Overview A World in...

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Chapter 28 Protists Book Notes Overview – A World in a Drop of Water 28.1 – Protists are an extremely diverse assortment of eukaryotes 28.2 – Diplomonads and Parabasalids have modified mitochondria 28.3 – Euglenozoans have flagella with a unique internal structure 28.4 – Alveolates have sacs beneath the plasma membrane 28.5 – Stramenopiles have “hairy” and smooth flagella 28.6 – Cercozoans and radiolarians have threadlike pseudopodia 28.7 – Amoebozoans have lobe-shaped pseudopodia
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28.8 – Red algae and green algae are the closest relative of land plants Summary Table Key Terms Overview 1. Even a low-power microscope can reveal an astonishing menagerie of organisms in a drop of pond water 2. These amazing organisms belong to the diverse kingdoms of mostly single- celled eukaryotes informally known as protists 3. Advances in eukaryotic systematics have caused the classification of protists to change significantly Section 28.1 1. Protists are more diverse than all other eukaryotes and are no longer classified in a single kingdom 2. Most protists are unicellular and some are colonial or multicellular 3. Reproduction and life cycles are also highly varied among protists, with both sexual and asexual species 4. Protists, the most nutritionally diverse of all eukaryotes, include: 1. Photoautotrophs – contains chloroplasts 2. Heterotrophs – absorbs organic molecules or ingest larger food particles 3. Mixotrophs – combines photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition 5. Protist habitats are diverse and include freshwater and marine species 6. Endosymbiosis in Eukaryotic Evolution
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1. There is now considerable evidence that much of protist diversity has its origins in endosymbiosis 2. The plastid-bearing lineage of protists evolved into red algae and green algae 3. On several occasions during eukaryotic evolution red algae and green algae underwent secondary endosymbiosis, in which they themselves were ingested 4. Diversity of plastids produced by secondary endosymbiosis 5. A tentative phylogeny of eukaryotes divides eukaryotes into many clades Section 28.2 1. Diplomonads and Parabasalids 1. Are adapted to anaerobic environments 2. Lack plastids 3. Have mitochondria that lack DNA, and electron transport chain, or citric- acid cycle enzymes 2. Diplomonads 1. Have two nuclei and multiple flagella 2. Giardia intestinalis 1. Parasite the inhabits the human intestinal tract and can cause severe diarrhea 2. From drinking water contaminated with dormant cysts of this protist 3. Parabasalids
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1. Include trichomonads, which moves by means of flagella and an undulating part of the plasma membrane 2. Trichiminas vaginalis
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Ch. 28 - Chapter 28 Protists Book Notes Overview A World in...

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