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Chapter 1Child Development – understanding constancy and change from conception to adolescence Part of a larger field:Developmental Science – all the changes we experiences throughout our lifespan (Broad) 3 Domains of Development are: Physical, cognitive, emotional andsocial (they are not really distinct, but rather overlap and interact.)Physical Development: Changes in body size, proportions, appearance, body functions, motor capabilities and physical healthyCognitive Development: Changes in learning abilities (attention and memory), academic and everyday knowledge, problem solving, imagination, creativity and languageEmotional and Social Development: Changes in emotional communication, self-understanding, knowing other people, interpersonal skills, friendship/intimate relationships, and moral reasoning and behaviorPeriods of Development: The prenatal period: from conception to birth: the most rapid period of change, this nine month period a one-celled organism forms a human baby who is has the capability to adjust to life outside the wombInfancy and toddlerhood: from birth to 2 years: dramatic changes in the body and brain that support motor, perceptual and intellectual abilities. Language begins and first intimate ties. Infancy is the first year, toddlerhood is the second(first independent steps taken.)Early childhood: from 2 to 6 years: The body becomes stronger, more refined motor skills, more self control and self sufficiency. Imagination begins, supporting psychological development. Thought and language expand drastically, and sense of morality is apparent. Ties with peers are established.Middle childhood: from 6 to 11 years: children learn about the bigger world and master new responsibilities (resembling those they will perform as adults.) Improved athletics, participation in organized games with rules, more logical thought processes, academic knowledge and skills (reading andwriting) and advances in understanding the self, morality, and friendship.Adolescence: from 11 to 18 years: the transition to adulthood. Puberty leads to an adult sized body and sexual maturity. Abstract thought, idealistic and school is increased to prepare for higher education and the working world. Being to establish autonomy from the family and define personal values and goals.
Basic IssuesTheory: An orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. Theories are vital tools for two reasons: provide an organizing framework for observations of children; they guide and give meaning to what we see. Second, theories that are verified by research are often a sound basis for practical action. Once a theory helps us understand development, we are in a better position to know how to improvethe welfare and treatment of children.