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Cases in Comparative Government - CASES IN COMPARATIVE...

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Unformatted text preview: CASES IN COMPARATIVE POLITICS THIRD EDITION This page intentionally left blank CASES IN COMPARATIVE POLITICS THIRD EDITION PATRICK H. O’NEIL, KARL FIELDS, AND DON SHARE B W . W . N O R T O N New York • & London C O M P A N Y W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program—trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of four hundred and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year—W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2010, 2006, 2004 by W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Editor: Aaron Javsicas Assistant editor: Carly Fraser Project editor: Kate Feighery Production manager, College: Eric Pier-Hocking Composition: Matrix Publishing Services, Inc. Manufacturing: Quebecor World—Fairfield division Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data O’Neil, Patrick H., 1966– Essentials of comparative politics / Patrick H. O’Neil, Karl Fields, and Don Share— 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN: 978-0-393-93377-2 (pbk.) 1. Comparative government—Case Studies. I. Fields, Karl J. II. Share, Donald. III. Title. JF51.O538 2009 320.3—dc22 2009022518 ISBN: 978-0-393-11639-7 (ebook) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10110 W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ABOUT THE AUTHORS Patrick H. O’Neil is Professor of Politics and Government at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington. He has a Ph.D. in Political Science from Indiana University. Professor O’Neil’s teaching and research interests are in the areas of democratization, conflict and political violence. His publications include the books Revolution from Within: The Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party and the Collapse of Communism and Communicating Democracy: The Media and Political Transitions (editor). Karl Fields is Professor of Politics and Government and Director of Asian Studies at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington. He has a Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of California, Berkeley. Professor Fields’s teaching and research interests focus on East Asian political economy, including government-business relations, economic reform, and regional integration. His publications include Enterprise and the State in Korea and Taiwan. Don Share is Professor of Politics and Government at the University of Puget Sound in Tacoma, Washington. He has a Ph.D. in Political Science from Stanford University. He teaches comparative politics and Latin American politics, and has published widely on democratization and Spanish politics. His books include The Making of Spanish Democracy and Dilemmas of Social Democracy. v This page intentionally left blank BRIEF CONTENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. INTRODUCTION UNITED KINGDOM UNITED STATES FRANCE 31 75 115 GERMANY JAPAN 1 157 200 RUSSIA 245 CHINA 285 INDIA 327 IRAN 369 MEXICO 407 BRAZIL 450 SOUTH AFRICA NIGERIA 490 531 vii This page intentionally left blank CONTENTS PREFACE 1. xix INTRODUCTION 1 What Is Comparative Politics? Comparing States 2 2 3 IN COMPARISON: TOTAL LAND SIZE 4 IN COMPARISON: POPULATION Comparing Regimes 5 IN COMPARISON: PERCEIVED CORRUPTION, 6 2008 IN COMPARISON: FREEDOM HOUSE RANKINGS, 8 2008 Comparing Political Conflict and Competition IN COMPARISON: AVERAGE VOTER TURNOUT, Comparing Societies 1945–1998 13 14 15 IN COMPARISON: ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS DIVERSITY Comparing Political Economies 16 18 19 IN COMPARISON: TOTAL GDP AT PURCHASING-POWER PARITY IN COMPARISON: TOTAL PER CAPITA GDP AT PURCHASING-POWER PARITY IN COMPARISON: ECONOMIC INEQUALITY IN COMPARISON: GDP GROWTH RATE, The Global Context 21 1975–2005 2. 2006 23 24 UNITED KINGDOM Introduction 22 22 IN COMPARISON: HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SCORES, Conclusion 20 31 32 Why Study This Case? 32 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State 33 33 ix x CONTENTS Political Regime 39 Political Institutions 41 The Branches of Government The Electoral System 43 48 Local Government 51 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections 52 56 Civil Society Society 56 57 Class Identity 58 Ethnic and National Identity 59 Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 61 62 Foreign Relations and the World IN COMPARISON: EUROPEAN UNION Current Issues 3. 52 66 68 UNITED STATES Introduction 65 75 76 Why Study This Case? 76 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 78 85 Political Institutions 86 The Branches of the Government The Electoral System Local Government 87 92 94 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections Civil Society Society 96 98 98 99 Ethnic and National Identity Ideology and Political Culture IN COMPARISON: ECONOMIC EQUALITY IN COMPARISON: RELIGIOUS VALUES 99 100 102 104 95 77 CONTENTS Political Economy 105 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues 4. FRANCE 107 110 115 Introduction 116 Why Study This Case? 116 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 118 126 Political Institutions 126 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 127 134 135 Other Institutions: The French Bureaucracy Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections 136 136 140 141 Ethnic and National Identity 141 IN COMPARISON: RELIGION AND GOVERNMENT Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy Current Issues GERMANY Introduction 143 144 145 Foreign Relations and the World 5. 135 139 Civil Society Society 117 149 152 157 158 Why Study This Case? 158 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 171 Political Institutions 171 The Branches of Government 172 160 159 xi xii CONTENTS The Electoral System Local Government 178 179 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections 180 185 Civil Society Society 185 187 Ethnic and National Identity 187 Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 189 190 Foreign Relations and the World IN COMPARISON: MILITARY FORCE Current Issues 6. JAPAN 180 192 193 195 200 Introduction 201 Why Study This Case? 201 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 203 204 213 Political Institutions 214 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 214 217 219 Other Institutions: Bureaucracy and the Iron Triangle Political Conflict and Competition The Party System and Elections Civil Society Society 220 222 222 227 229 Ethnic and National Identity Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 229 231 232 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues 235 239 IN COMPARISON: PERCENTAGE OF THE POPULATION OVER AGE 65 240 CONTENTS 7. RUSSIA 245 Introduction 246 Why Study This Case? 246 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 256 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 257 263 264 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System and Elections Society 266 272 Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 272 274 275 IN COMPARISON: FREE MARKETS 277 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues CHINA 266 269 Ethnic and National Identity 8. 249 256 Political Institutions Civil Society 248 278 281 285 Introduction 286 Why Study This Case? 286 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 287 288 296 Political Institutions 297 Communist Party Institutions and Organs The Branches of Government Local Government 300 302 305 Other Institutions: The People’s Liberation Army Political Conflict and Competition 306 The Party System: The Chinese Communist Party The Succession and Circulation of Elites Civil Society 307 308 IN COMPARISON: IS THE STATE TOO POWERFUL? 305 309 306 xiii xiv CONTENTS Society 312 Ethnic and National Identity Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 312 312 317 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues 9. INDIA 320 322 327 Introduction 328 Why Study This Case? 328 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 330 341 Political Institutions 341 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 342 345 346 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections 347 347 351 Civil Society Society 352 354 Ethnic and National Identity Ideology and Political Culture 354 355 IN COMPARISON: FEARS ABOUT FOREIGN INFLUENCE Political Economy Current Issues IRAN 356 357 Foreign Relations and the World 10. 329 360 364 369 Introduction 370 Why Study This Case? 370 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 382 Political Institutions 383 372 371 CONTENTS The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 384 387 388 Other Institutions: The Revolutionary Guard and the Basij Political Conflict and Competition 389 The Rise and Fall of Political Reform 390 Civil Society Society 392 393 Ethnic and National Identity 393 Ideology and Political Culture 395 IN COMPARISON: CLASH OF CIVILIZATIONS? Political Economy 398 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues 11. MEXICO 397 400 403 407 Introduction 408 Why Study This Case? 408 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 417 Political Institutions 417 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 418 421 422 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections 423 423 429 Civil Society Society 410 430 433 Ethnic and National Identity 433 Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 434 436 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues 440 442 IN COMPARISON: THE IMPORTANCE OF FOREIGN REMITTANCES TO THE MEXICAN ECONOMY 443 409 388 xv xvi CONTENTS 12. BRAZIL 450 Introduction 451 Why Study This Case? 451 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 453 462 Political Institutions 462 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 463 466 468 Other Institutions: The Military and the Police Political Conflict and Competition The Party System and Elections Civil Society Society 470 470 474 Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 474 476 477 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues Introduction 481 483 SOUTH AFRICA 490 491 Why Study This Case? 491 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 502 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 504 506 507 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System and Elections Civil Society 494 502 Political Institutions Society 469 473 Ethnic and National Identity 13. 452 508 512 514 Racism in the Rainbow Nation 514 508 492 CONTENTS Ethnic and National Identity Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 515 516 518 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues 14. NIGERIA 521 524 531 Introduction 532 Why Study This Case? 532 Major Geographic and Demographic Features Historical Development of the State Political Regime 542 Political Institutions 544 The Branches of Government The Electoral System Local Government 545 548 550 Other Institutions: The Military 551 Political Conflict and Competition The Party System Elections 534 551 551 552 Civil Society 554 IN COMPARISON: CHOOSING BETWEEN A GOOD DEMOCRACY AND A STRONG ECONOMY Society 555 556 Ethnic and National Identity Ideology and Political Culture Political Economy 556 558 559 Foreign Relations and the World Current Issues Index 569 564 562 533 xvii This page intentionally left blank PREFACE Cases in Comparative Politics can be traced to an ongoing experiment undertaken by the three comparative political scientists in the Politics and Government Department at the University of Puget Sound. Over the years the three of us spent much time discussing the challenges of teaching our introductory course in comparative politics. In those discussions we came to realize that each of us taught the course so differently that students completing our different sections of the course did not really share a common conceptual vocabulary. Over several years we fashioned a unified curriculum for Introduction to Comparative Politics, drawing on the strengths of each of our particular approaches. All three of us now equip our students with a common conceptual vocabulary. All of our students now learn about states, nations, and different models of political economy. All students learn the basics about nondemocratic and democratic regimes, and they become familiar with characteristics of communist systems and advanced democracies. In developing our curriculum, we became frustrated trying to find cases that were concise, sophisticated, and written to address the major concepts introduced in Patrick H. O’Neil’s textbook, Essentials of Comparative Politics. Thus, we initially coauthored six cases adhering to a set of criteria: ■ ■ ■ Each case is concise, making it possible to assign an entire case, or even two cases, for a single class session. All cases include discussion of major geographic and demographic features, themes in the historical development of the state, political regimes (including the constitution, branches of government, the electoral system, and local government), political conflict and competition (including the party system and civil society), society, political economy, and current issues. This uniform structure allowed us to assign specific sections from two or more cases simultaneously. The cases follow the general framework of Essentials of Comparative Politics but could also be used in conjunction with other texts. xix xx PREFACE After the publication of the initial six cases (the United Kingdom, Japan, China, Russia, Mexico, and South Africa), we received positive feedback from teachers of comparative politics. Drawing on their comments and suggestions, we wrote new cases to accommodate individual preferences and give instructors more choice. We subsequently added cases on Brazil, France, India, Iran, the United States, and Nigeria. Based on feedback from instructors, this third edition adds Germany, bringing the total number of cases to thirteen. Selecting only thirteen cases is, of course, fraught with drawbacks. Nevertheless, we believe that this collection represents countries that are both important in their own right and representative of a broad range of political systems. Each of the thirteen cases has special importance in the context of the study of comparative politics. Five of our cases (France, Germany, Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom) are advanced industrial democracies, but they represent a wide range of institutions, societies, political economic models, and relationships with the world. Japan is an important instance of a non-Western industrialized democracy and an instructive case of democratization imposed by foreign occupiers. While the United Kingdom and the United States have been known for political stability, France and Germany have fascinating histories of political turmoil and regime change. Two of our cases, China and Russia, share a past of Marxist-Leninist totalitarianism. Communism thrived in these two large and culturally distinct nations. Both suffered from the dangerous concentration of power in the hands of communist parties and, at times, despotic leaders. The Soviet Communist regime imploded and led to a troubled and incomplete transition to capitalism and democracy. China has retained its communist authoritarian political system but has experimented with a remarkable transition to a largely capitalist political economy. The remaining six cases illustrate the diversity of the developing world. Of the six, India has had the longest history of stable democratic rule, but like most countries in the developing world, it has nevertheless struggled with massive poverty and inequality. The remaining five have experienced various forms of authoritarianism. Brazil and Nigeria endured long periods of military rule. Mexico’s history of military rule was ended by an authoritarian political party that ruled for much of the twentieth century through a variety of nonmilitary means. South Africa experienced decades of racially based authoritarianism that excluded the vast majority of its population. Iran experienced a modernizing authoritarian monarchy followed by its current authoritarian regime, a theocracy ruled by Islamic clerics. In writing the cases we have incurred numerous debts. First, and foremost, we wish to thank our wonderful colleagues in the Department of Politics and Government at the University of Puget Sound. By encouraging us to develop a common curriculum for our Introduction to Comparative Politics PREFACE offering, and by allowing us to team-teach the course in different combinations, they allowed us to learn from each other. These cases are much stronger as a result. The university has also been extremely supportive in recognizing that writing for the classroom is as valuable as writing scholarly publications, and in providing course releases and summer stipends toward that end. Student assistants Brett Venn, Jess Box, and Liz Kaster proved extremely helpful in conducting research for our various cases; Irene Lim has, as always, supported us with her amazing technical and organizational skills. Our colleague Bill Haltom provided very helpful input throughout the project. Debby Nagusky contributed valuable copyediting assistance. We very much appreciate the many helpful comments we have received from fellow instructors of comparative politics, including Emily Acevedo (California State University, Los Angeles), Josephine Andrews (University of California, Davis), Alex Avila (Mesa Community College), Jeremy Busacca (Whittier College), William Heller (Binghamton University), Robert Jackson (University of Redlands), Ricardo Larémont (Binghamton University), Mary Malone (University of New Hampshire), Pamela Martin (Coastal Carolina University), Mark Milewicz (Gordon College), John Occhipinti (Canisius College), Anthony O’Regan (Los Angeles Valley College), Paul Rousseau (University of Windsor), and José Vadi (Cal Poly, Pomona). We would especially like to thank Emmanuel J. Teitelbaum, from the Department of Political Science at the George Washington University, and Peter H. Loedel, Professor and Chair of the Department of Political Science at West Chester University, for providing insightful feedback on this most recent edition. Many thanks to all the folks at Norton—Peter Lesser, Ann Shin, Roby Harrington, and Aaron Javsicas—who have contributed to the success of this project. Finally, we thank our students at the University of Puget Sound who inspired us to write these cases and provided valuable feedback throughout the entire process. Don Share Karl Fields Patrick H. O’Neil Tacoma, WA 2009 A note about the data: The data that are presented throughout the text in numerous tables, charts, and other figures are drawn from the CIA World Fact unless otherwise noted. xxi This page intentionally left blank 1 INTRODUCTION United Kingdom Germany Russia France United States Japan China Mexico Nigeria Iran India Brazil South Africa 1 2 CH. 1 INTRODUCTION WHAT IS COMPARATIVE POLITICS? C omparative politics is the study and comparison of poli...
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