Give Me Liberty Required Book - GIVE ME LIBERTY AN AMERICAN HISTORY Brief Fourth Edition GIVE ME LIBERTY AN AMERICAN HISTORY Brief Fourth Edition ERIC

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Unformatted text preview: GIVE ME LIBERTY! AN AMERICAN HISTORY Brief Fourth Edition GIVE ME LIBERTY! AN AMERICAN HISTORY Brief Fourth Edition ERIC FONER B W . W . NORTON & COMPANY NEW YORK . LONDON For my mother, Liza Foner (1909–2005), an accomplished artist who lived through most of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first W. W. Norton & Company has been independent since its founding in 1923, when William Warder Norton and Mary D. Herter Norton first published lectures delivered at the People’s Institute, the adult education division of New York City’s Cooper Union. The firm soon expanded its program beyond the Institute, publishing books by celebrated academics from America and abroad. By mid-century, the two major pillars of Norton’s publishing program— trade books and college texts—were firmly established. In the 1950s, the Norton family transferred control of the company to its employees, and today—with a staff of 400 and a comparable number of trade, college, and professional titles published each year— W. W. Norton & Company stands as the largest and oldest publishing house owned wholly by its employees. Copyright © 2014, 2012 by Eric Foner All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America Fourth Edition Editor: Steve Forman Associate Editor: Justin Cahill Editorial Assistant: Penelope Lin Managing Editor, College: Marian Johnson Managing Editor, College Digital Media: Kim Yi Project Editor: Diane Cipollone Copy Editor: Elizabeth Dubrulle Marketing Manager: Sarah England Media Editors: Steve Hoge, Tacy Quinn Assistant Editor, Media: Stefani Wallace Production Manager: Sean Mintus Art Director: Rubina Yeh Designer: Chin-Yee Lai Photo Editor: Stephanie Romeo Photo Research: Donna Ranieri Permissions Manager: Megan Jackson Permissions Clearing: Bethany Salminen Composition and Layout: Jouve Manufacturing: Transcontinental Since this page cannot accommodate all of the copyright notices, the Credits pages at the end of the book constitute an extension of the copyright page. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data has been applied for. This edition: ISBN 978-0-393-92033-8 (pbk.) W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 500 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10110-0017 wwnorton.com W. W. Norton & Company Ltd., Castle House, 75/76 Wells Street, London W1T 3QT 1234567890 ABOUT THE AUTHOR E R I C F O N E R is DeWitt Clinton Professor of History at Columbia University, where he earned his B.A. and Ph.D. In his teaching and scholarship, he focuses on the Civil War and Reconstruction, slavery, and nineteenth-century America. Professor Foner’s publications include Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War; Tom Paine and Revolutionary America; Nothing but Freedom: Emancipation and Its Legacy; Reconstruction: America’s Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877; The Story of American Freedom; and Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. His history of Reconstruction won the Los Angeles Times Book Award for History, the Bancroft Prize, and the Parkman Prize. He has served as president of the Organization of American Historians and the American Historical Association. In 2006 he received the Presidential Award for Outstanding Teaching from Columbia University. His most recent book is The Fiery Trial: Abraham Lincoln and American Slavery, winner of the Lincoln Prize, the Bancroft Prize, and the Pulitzer Prize. CONTENTS About the Author ... v List of Maps, Tables, and Figures ... xviii Preface ... xx 1. A NEW WORLD ... 1 THE FIR ST A M E RIC A N S . . . 3 The Settling of the Americas ... 3 Indian Societies of the Americas ... 3 Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley ... 5 Western Indians ... 6 Indians of Eastern North America ... 6 Native American Religion ... 7 Land and Property ... 9 Gender Relations ... 10 European Views of the Indians ... 10 INDIAN FRE EDO M , EU RO PE A N F RE ED O M . . . 1 1 Indian Freedom ... 11 Christian Liberty ... 12 Freedom and Authority ... 12 Liberty and Liberties ... 13 THE EXPA NS ION O F E UR O PE . . . 1 3 Chinese and Portuguese Navigation ... 14 Freedom and Slavery in Africa ... 14 The Voyages of Columbus ... 16 CONTACT .. . 1 6 Columbus in the New World ... 16 Exploration and Conquest ... 17 The Demographic Disaster ... 19 THE SP ANIS H E M PIRE . . . 2 0 Governing Spanish America ... 21 Colonists and Indians in Spanish America ... 21 Justifications for Conquest ... 22 Piety and Profit ... 23 Reforming the Empire ... 24 Exploring North America ... 25 Spanish in Florida and the Southwest ... 25 The Pueblo Revolt ... 27 Voices of Freedom: From Bartolomé de las Casas, History of the Indies (1528), and From “Declaration of Josephe” (December 19, 1681) ... 28 THE FRE NCH AN D D UT CH EM PIRE S . . . 3 0 French Colonization ... 32 New France and the Indians ... 32 The Dutch Empire ... 34 Dutch Freedom ... 34 The Dutch and Religious Toleration ... 35 Settling New Netherland ... 36 Features of European Settlement ... 36 REVIEW . .. 37 2. BEGINNINGS OF ENGLISH AMERICA, 1607–1660 ... 38 ENGLAN D AND TH E N E W W O RLD . . . 4 0 Unifying the English Nation ... 40 England and Ireland ... 40 England and North America ... 40 Motives for Colonization ... 41 The Social Crisis ... 42 Masterless Men ... 43 C o nt e n t s vi i THE COMIN G OF T HE EN G LI S H . . . 43 English Emigrants ... 43 Indentured Servants ... 44 Land and Liberty ... 44 Englishmen and Indians ... 45 The Transformation of Indian Life ... 46 SETTLING TH E CHE S A PEA K E . . . 47 The Jamestown Colony ... 47 Powhatan and Pocahontas ... 48 The Uprising of 1622 ... 49 A Tobacco Colony ... 50 Women and the Family ... 50 The Maryland Experiment ... 52 Religion in Maryland ... 52 THE NEW EN GLA ND W A Y . . . 53 The Rise of Puritanism ... 53 Moral Liberty ... 53 The Pilgrims at Plymouth ... 54 The Great Migration ... 55 The Puritan Family ... 55 Government and Society in Massachusetts ... 56 Church and State in Puritan Massachusetts ... 58 NEW ENGLAN DER S D IVID ED . . . 59 Roger Williams ... 60 Rhode Island and Connecticut ... 60 The Trials of Anne Hutchinson ... 61 Puritans and Indians ... 61 Voices of Freedom: From “The Trial of Anne Hutchinson” (1637), and From John Winthrop, Speech to the Massachusetts General Court (July 3, 1645) ... 62 The Pequot War ... 64 The New England Economy ... 65 A Growing Commercial Society ... 66 RE LIGION, POLIT ICS , A N D FRE ED O M ... 67 The Rights of Englishmen ... 67 The English Civil War ... 68 England’s Debate over Freedom ... 68 The Civil War and English America ... 69 Cromwell and the Empire ... 70 RE VIEW . .. 71 3. CREATING ANGLO-AMERICA, 1660–1750 ... 72 GLOBAL CO M PET ITI O N A N D TH E E XP A N S IO N O F ENGLAND’ S E MPIR E . . . 74 The Mercantilist System ... 74 The Conquest of New Netherland ... 74 New York and the Indians ... 75 The Charter of Liberties ... 77 The Founding of Carolina ... 77 The Holy Experiment ... 78 Land in Pennsylvania ... 79 ORIGINS OF A ME RI CA N S LA V ER Y . . . 80 Englishmen and Africans ... 80 Slavery in History ... 81 Slavery in the West Indies ... 81 Slavery and the Law ... 82 The Rise of Chesapeake Slavery ... 83 Bacon’s Rebellion: Land and Labor in Virginia ... 83 A Slave Society ... 85 v iii Con t en ts COLON IE S IN CR IS IS . . . 86 The Glorious Revolution ... 86 The Glorious Revolution in America ... 87 The Salem Witch Trials ... 89 THE GR OWT H O F C O LO N IA L A M E RIC A . . . 90 A Diverse Population ... 90 The German Migration ... 91 Voices of Freedom: From Memorial against Non-English Immigration (December 1727), and From Letter by a Swiss-German Immigrant to Pennsylvania (August 23, 1769) ... 92 Religious Diversity ... 95 Indian Life in Transition ... 95 Regional Diversity ... 96 The Consumer Revolution ... 97 Colonial Cities ... 97 An Atlantic World ... 98 SOCIAL CLA SS ES IN T H E CO L O N IES . . . 99 The Colonial Elite ... 99 Anglicization ... 100 Poverty in the Colonies ... 100 The Middle Ranks ... 101 Women and the Household Economy ... 101 North America at Mid-Century ... 102 REVIEW . .. 10 3 4. SLAVERY, FREEDOM, AND THE STRUGGLE FOR EMPIRE, TO 1763 ... 104 SL AVERY A ND E M PIR E . . . 106 Atlantic Trade ... 106 Africa and the Slave Trade ... 107 The Middle Passage ... 109 Chesapeake Slavery ... 109 The Rice Kingdom ... 110 The Georgia Experiment ... 111 Slavery in the North ... 112 SL AVE CULT URE S A N D S LA V E R ES IS T A N CE . . . 113 Becoming African-American ... 113 African Religion in Colonial America ... 113 African-American Cultures ... 114 Resistance to Slavery ... 115 AN EMP IRE O F FRE ED O M . . . 116 British Patriotism ... 116 The British Constitution ... 117 Republican Liberty ... 117 Liberal Freedom ... 118 THE P UB LIC S PH E R E . . . 119 The Right to Vote ... 119 Political Cultures ... 120 The Rise of the Assemblies ... 121 Politics in Public ... 121 The Colonial Press ... 122 Freedom of Expression and Its Limits ... 122 The Trial of Zenger ... 123 The American Enlightenment ... 124 THE GR EA T AWA K E N IN G . . . 125 Religious Revivals ... 125 The Preaching of Whitefield ... 126 The Awakening’s Impact ... 126 IMPERI AL RI VALR IES . . . 127 Spanish North America ... 127 The Spanish in California ... 127 The French Empire ... 129 Co n t e n t s ix BATTL E F O R T HE CO N T IN EN T . . . 130 The Middle Ground ... 130 The Seven Years’ War ... 130 A World Transformed ... 131 Pontiac’s Rebellion ... 132 The Proclamation Line ... 132 Voices of Freedom: From Pontiac, Speeches (1762 and 1763), and From The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African (1789) ... 134 Pennsylvania and the Indians ... 136 Colonial Identities ... 137 RE VIEW . .. 13 8 5. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1763–1783 ... 139 THE CRISIS BE GIN S . . . 140 Consolidating the Empire ... 140 Taxing the Colonies ... 142 Taxation and Representation ... 143 Liberty and Resistance ... 144 The Regulators ... 145 THE ROAD T O RE VO LU TIO N . . . 145 The Townshend Crisis ... 145 The Boston Massacre ... 146 Wilkes and Liberty ... 147 The Tea Act ... 148 The Intolerable Acts ... 148 THE COMIN G OF IND E PEN D EN C E . . . 149 The Continental Congress ... 149 The Continental Association ... 150 The Sweets of Liberty ... 150 The Outbreak of War ... 151 Independence? ... 151 Paine’s Common Sense ... 152 The Declaration of Independence ... 153 An Asylum for Mankind ... 154 The Global Declaration of Independence ... 155 Voices of Freedom: From Thomas Paine, Common Sense (1776), and From Jonathan Boucher, A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution (1775) ... 156 SECURING IN DEPE ND EN C E . . . 158 The Balance of Power ... 158 Blacks in the Revolution ... 158 The First Years of the War ... 159 The Battle of Saratoga ... 161 The War in the South ... 162 Victory at Last ... 162 RE VIEW . .. 16 6 6. THE REVOLUTION WITHIN ... 167 DEMOCRATIZIN G FR E ED O M . . . 169 The Dream of Equality ... 169 Expanding the Political Nation ... 169 The Revolution in Pennsylvania ... 170 The New Constitutions ... 171 The Right to Vote ... 171 TOW ARD RE LIGIO US TO L ER A TIO N . . . 172 Catholic Americans ... 173 Separating Church and State ... 173 Jefferson and Religious Liberty ... 174 Christian Republicanism ... 175 A Virtuous Citizenry ... 175 x Co n te n ts DEF INI NG E CON O M IC FRE ED O M . . . 176 Toward Free Labor ... 176 The Soul of a Republic ... 176 The Politics of Inflation ... 177 The Debate over Free Trade ... 178 THE LIM ITS OF LIB ER TY . . . 178 Colonial Loyalists ... 178 The Loyalists’ Plight ... 179 The Indians’ Revolution ... 181 SL AVERY A ND T H E RE VO L UT IO N . . . 182 The Language of Slavery and Freedom ... 182 Obstacles to Abolition ... 183 The Cause of General Liberty ... 183 Petitions for Freedom ... 184 British Emancipators ... 185 Voluntary Emancipations ... 185 Voices of Freedom: From Abigail Adams to John Adams, Braintree, Mass. (March 31, 1776), and From Petitions of Slaves to the Massachusetts Legislature (1773 and 1777) ... 186 Abolition in the North ... 188 Free Black Communities ... 188 DAUGH TE RS OF LI BE RT Y . . . 189 Revolutionary Women ... 189 Republican Motherhood ... 190 The Arduous Struggle for Liberty ... 190 REVIEW . .. 19 2 7. FOUNDING A NATION, 1783–1791 ... 193 AMER ICA UNDE R T H E CO N F ED ER A TIO N . . . 195 The Articles of Confederation ... 195 Congress, Settlers, and the West ... 196 The Land Ordinances ... 198 The Confederation’s Weaknesses ... 200 Shays’s Rebellion ... 200 Nationalists of the 1780s ... 201 A NEW CONS T ITU TIO N . . . 202 The Structure of Government ... 202 The Limits of Democracy ... 203 The Division and Separation of Powers ... 204 The Debate over Slavery ... 205 Slavery in the Constitution ... 205 The Final Document ... 207 THE RA TIFIC AT IO N D E B A T E A N D T H E O R IG IN O F T H E B IL L OF RIGHT S . .. 208 The Federalist ... 208 “Extend the Sphere” ... 208 The AntiFederalists ... 209 Voices of Freedom: From David Ramsay, The History of the American Revolution (1789), and From James Winthrop, Anti-Federalist Essay Signed “Agrippa” (1787) ... 210 The Bill of Rights ... 214 “W E TH E PE OPL E” . . . 215 National Identity ... 215 Indians in the New Nation ... 215 Blacks and the Republic ... 217 Jefferson, Slavery, and Race ... 218 Principles of Freedom ... 219 REVIEW . .. 22 0 Co n t e n t s xi 8. SECURING THE REPUBLIC, 1791–1815 ... 221 P OL ITICS I N AN A GE O F P A S S IO N . . . 222 Hamilton’s Program ... 223 The Emergence of Opposition ... 223 The Jefferson-Hamilton Bargain ... 224 The Impact of the French Revolution ... 225 Political Parties ... 226 The Whiskey Rebellion ... 226 The Republican Party ... 226 An Expanding Public Sphere ... 227 Voices of Freedom: From Judith Sargent Murray, “On the Equality of the Sexes” (1790), and From Address of the Democratic-Republican Society of Pennsylvania (December 18, 1794) ... 228 The Rights of Women ... 230 THE ADAMS PR ES IDE N C Y . . . 231 The Election of 1796 ... 231 The “Reign of Witches” ... 232 The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions ... 233 The “Revolution of 1800” ... 233 Slavery and Politics ... 234 The Haitian Revolution ... 235 Gabriel’s Rebellion ... 235 JEFF ERSON IN PO WE R . . . 236 Judicial Review ... 237 The Louisiana Purchase ... 237 Lewis and Clark ... 239 Incorporating Louisiana ... 240 The Barbary Wars ... 241 The Embargo ... 241 Madison and Pressure for War ... 242 THE “SE CON D W AR O F IN D EP EN D EN C E” . . . 243 The Indian Response ... 243 The War of 1812 ... 244 The War’s Aftermath ... 246 The End of the Federalist Party ... 247 RE VIEW . .. 24 8 9. THE MARKET REVOLUTION, 1800–1840 ... 249 A NE W ECO NOM Y . . . 251 Roads and Steamboats ... 251 The Erie Canal ... 252 Railroads and the Telegraph ... 254 The Rise of the West ... 255 The Cotton Kingdom ... 257 MARKET SO CIET Y .. . 259 Commercial Farmers ... 260 The Growth of Cities ... 260 The Factory System ... 261 The “Mill Girls” ... 262 The Growth of Immigration ... 263 The Rise of Nativism ... 265 The Transformation of Law ... 266 THE FREE IN DIVIDU A L . . . 267 The West and Freedom ... 267 The Transcendentalists ... 267 The Second Great Awakening ... 268 The Awakening’s Impact ... 269 Voices of Freedom: From Ralph Waldo Emerson, “The American Scholar” (1837), and From “Factory Life as It Is, by an Operative” (1845) ... 270 The Emergence of Mormonism ... 272 x ii Con te n ts THE LIM ITS OF PR O S PE RIT Y . . . 273 Liberty and Prosperity ... 273 Race and Opportunity ... 274 The Cult of Domesticity ... 275 Women and Work ... 276 The Early Labor Movement ... 277 The “Liberty of Living” ... 277 REVIEW . .. 27 9 10. DEMOCRACY IN AMERICA, 1815–1840 ... 280 THE TRIUM PH OF DE M O C R A CY . . . 281 Property and Democracy ... 281 The Dorr War ... 282 Tocqueville on Democracy ... 282 The Information Revolution ... 283 The Limits of Democracy ... 284 A Racial Democracy ... 284 NATION ALIS M AN D ITS D IS C O N TE N TS . . . 285 The American System ... 285 Banks and Money ... 287 The Panic of 1819 ... 287 The Missouri Controversy ... 288 NATION , S ECT IO N , A N D PA R TY . . . 289 The United States and the Latin American Wars of Independence ... 289 The Monroe Doctrine ... 290 The Election of 1824 ... 291 Voices of Freedom: From President James Monroe, Annual Message to Congress (1823), and From John C. Calhoun, “A Disquisition on Government” (ca. 1845) ... 292 The Nationalism of John Quincy Adams ... 294 “Liberty Is Power” ... 294 Martin Van Buren and the Democratic Party ... 294 The Election of 1828 ... 295 THE AG E OF JA CK S O N . . . 296 The Party System ... 296 Democrats and Whigs ... 297 Public and Private Freedom ... 298 South Carolina and Nullification ... 299 Calhoun’s Political Theory ... 299 The Nullification Crisis ... 301 Indian Removal ... 301 The Supreme Court and the Indians ... 302 THE BA NK W AR A N D A FTE R . . . 304 Biddle’s Bank ... 304 Pet Banks, the Economy, and the Panic of 1837 ... 306 Van Buren in Office ... 307 The Election of 1840 ... 307 REVIEW . .. 31 0 11. THE PECULIAR INSTITUTION ... 311 THE OLD S OUT H . . . 312 Cotton Is King ... 313 The Second Middle Passage ... 314 Slavery and the Nation ... 314 The Southern Economy ... 314 Plain Folk of the Old South ... 316 The Planter Class ... 317 The Paternalist Ethos ... 318 The Proslavery Argument ... 318 Abolition in the Americas ... 320 Slavery and Liberty ... 320 C on te nt s xi i i L IFE UNDER SLA VE R Y . . . 321 Slaves and the Law ... 321 Conditions of Slave Life ... 322 Free Blacks in the Old South ... 322 Slave Labor ... 323 Slavery in the Cities ... 324 Maintaining Order ... 325 SLAVE CU LT UR E .. . 326 The Slave Family ... 326 The Threat of Sale ... 327 Gender Roles among Slaves ... 327 Slave Religion ... 328 The Desire for Liberty ... 329 RE SISTANC E TO S LA V ER Y . . . 330 Forms of Resistance ... 330 Voices of Freedom: From Letter by Joseph Taper to Joseph Long (1840), and From “Slavery and the Bible” (1850) ... 332 The Amistad ... 334 Slave Revolts ... 335 Nat Turner’s Rebellion ... 336 RE VIEW . .. 33 8 12. AN AGE OF REFORM, 1820–1840 ... 339 THE REFORM IMP ULS E . . . 340 Utopian Communities ... 341 The Shakers ... 343 Oneida ... 343 Worldly Communities ... 344 Religion and Reform ... 345 Critics of Reform ... 346 Reformers and Freedom ... 346 The Invention of the Asylum ... 347 The Common School ... 347 THE CRUSA DE AG AIN S T S LA VE RY . . . 348 Colonization ... 348 Militant Abolitionism ... 349 Spreading the Abolitionist Message ... 350 Slavery and Moral Suasion ... 351 A New Vision of America ... 352 BL ACK AND WHIT E A BO LIT IO N IS M . . . 353 Black Abolitionists ... 353 Gentlemen of Property and Standing ... 354 THE ORIGIN S O F F EM IN IS M . . . 356 The Rise of the Public Woman ... 356 Women and Free Speech ... 356 Women’s Rights ... 357 Feminism and Freedom ... 358 Women and Work ... 358 The Slavery of Sex ... 359 Voices of Freedom: From Angelina Grimké, Letter in The Liberator (August 2, 1837), and From Frederick Douglass, Speech on July 5, 1852, Rochester, New York ... 360 “Social Freedom” ... 362 The Abolitionist Schism ... 363 RE VIEW . .. 36 5 13. A HOUSE DIVIDED, 1840–1861 ... 366 F RUITS OF MA NIFE S T DE S T IN Y . . . 368 Continental Expansion ... 368 The Mexican Frontier: New Mexico and California ... 368 The Texas Revolt ... 370 The Election of 1844 ... 370 The Road to War ... 372 The War and Its Critics ... 372 Combat x iv Co n te n ts in Mexico ... 373 Race and Manifest Destiny ... 374 Gold-Rush California ... 376 Opening Japan ... 377 A DOSE OF A RS EN IC . . . 378 The Wilmot Proviso ... 378 The Free Soil Appeal ... 379 Crisis and Compromise ... 380 The Great Debate ... 380 The Fugitive Slave Issue ... 381 Douglas and Popular Sovereignty ... 382 The KansasNebraska Act ... 382 THE RISE O F TH E R E PUB LIC A N PA R TY . . . 383 The Northern Economy ... 383 The Rise and Fall of the KnowNothings ... 385 The Free Labor Ideology ... 386 “Bleeding Kansas” and t...
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  • Civil War, American History, Slavery in the United States

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