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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 13 Food Resources 13-1 How is Food Produced? What 3 systems provide us with food? * Traditionally Humans have depended on 3 systems for their food supply: (1) croplands, (2) rangelands, and (3) oceanic fisheries * Over the years the food production has increased but we still have to keep up with the 9.3 billion people which are projected to be the world’s population by 2050. * Environmental degradation, pollution, lack of Water for irrigation, overgrazing, overfishing and loss of vital eco services may limit food production What plants and Animals feed the world? • Although the earth has many species of plants and animals, only 15 plants and 8 terrestrial account for 90% of caloric intake. • 3 grains – wheat, rice, corn. What are the major types of food production? • Crop production consists of replacing late successional communities of plants with early-successional communities through either monoculture or polyculture • 2 major types of food production are industrialized and traditional. a. Industrialized agriculture – high-input agriculture uses large amounts of inputs and harvests huge quantities of crops or livestock. 1. Plantation agriculture – practiced primarily in tropical developing countries. Involves growing cashcrops. b. Traditional agriculture – consists of 2 main types. 1. Subsistence agriculture – uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce enough crops or livestock for the family’s survival 2. Intensive Agriculture – farmers increase their inputs of human and draft labor, fertilizer and H2) to get higher yield per are of cultivated land to produced enough food for their family and to sell for profit. 13-2 Producing Food by Green Revolution and Traditional Techniques. How have green revolutions increased food production? High-input monocultures in action. • Farmers can produce more food by farming more land or getting higher yields per unit of area from existing cropland. • Since 1950’s increased in food is due to green revolution.( 1. develop selective high-yield monoculture, use high inputs of fertilizer, H20, pesticide, increase number of crops grown per yr on a plot of land) What growing techniques are used in traditional agriculture? Low-Input Agrodiversity in Action. • Many traditional farmers simultaneously grow several crops on the same plot – Interplanting. Some common interplanting strategies found in the world: • Polyvarietal cultivation – in which a plot is planted with several varieties of the same crop. • Intercropping – in which 2 or more different crops are grown at the same time on a plot. • Agroforestry or alley cropping – in which crops and trees are planted together • Polyculture – a more complex for of intercropping in which many plants maturing at various times are planted together. (Advantageous b/c less need for fertilizer& H2O, protection from wind and H2O erosion, little insecticides & herbicides, insurance against bad weather....
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- Fall '05