PLPT Final.docx - I Shift in the guiding metaphor for understanding What makes political authority legitimate in 16th-17th century from trees to

PLPT Final.docx - I Shift in the guiding metaphor for...

This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 3 pages.

I. Shift in the guiding metaphor for understanding. What makes political authority legitimate in 16th-17th century: from trees to contracts: breakdown of the medieval metaphor - Martin Luther (1483-1564) and the Protestant Reformation in 1517, in Germany: 1. Salvation by faith alone - God exerting the grace directly on me. The church has no role in helping move forward the salvation. People are saved by God's grace - be a good Christian and maintain faith. 2. Priesthood of all believers – you are your own priest. II. Historical background to Locke’s Second Treatise of Government (1689): The real reformation in England, 1642 England Civil War- John Calvin (1509-1594) Calvinism is the first modern, revolutionary political ideology - the Protestant theological system of JC and his successors, which develops Luther's doctrine of justification by faith alone and emphasizes the grace of God and the doctrine of predestination. Calvinist thinkers developed social contract theory arguing that the ultimate locus of authority (and all law) was derived from God, who then grants and delegates his authority to the people, who in turn delegate authority to the King to execute true justice in the land as defined by God for the people. III. John Locke and the origin of liberalism: 1. The state of nature: free, equal and reasonable. 2. Thomas Hobbes (1654) Leviathan – in the state of nature people are free, equal, but everyone can be a potential enemy and their interactions product conflicts and insecurity. It would be rational for people to agree on an authoritarian government of unlimited power to cease the fear the uncertainty. 3. Property in the state of nature: originally all property is given by God and held in common, the right of property arose from people’s attachment of labor. Locke’s justification of inequality of wealth: a. tacit consent (money), b. benefits for all, c. Calvinist social morality (Merit in the economic sphere equates a moral excellence, I deserve to keep everything I make because I am a moral person) 4. Upshot for government and political society: a. inequality is part of the moral basis of a just political order; b. government worthy of consent must be one that protects inequality. 5. Harms from high economic inequality. 6. Locke’s social contract: a. you give up your individual sovereign authority to be interpreter, judge, and executor of the law of nature, you get a better security of your natural rights through establishment of rule of law. b. Conditions have deteriorated over time: emerging conflict over distribution of wealth (two stages of the state of nature) c. parties: people in state of nature majority government d. majority has the governing power for practical reasons (the best government is run by the unanimity, however it respects personal and individual qualities. Therefore, the most effective government is practical and legitimate) d. Right of resistance: Tyranny is the exercise of power beyond right, which nobody can have a right to. And this is making use of the power any one has in his hands, not for the public good, but for his private separate advantage.
Image of page 1
Image of page 2

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 3 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors