Notes.docx - Historical background to Locke I II III What do we share with John Locke thinking about political authority Shift in the guiding metaphor

Notes.docx - Historical background to Locke I II III What...

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Historical background to LockeIWhat do we share with John Locke thinking about political authority? IIIIIShift in the guiding metaphor for understanding. What makes political authority legitimate in 16th-17th century: from trees to contracts aBreakdown of the medieval metaphor: Martin Luther (1483-1564) and the Protestant Reformation in 1517, in Germany iTwo crucial ideas of Luther - mascaraing all the authorities on the religion side, he questioned all the authorities the church has 1Salvation by faith alone - nothing the church does has nothing to do with the salvage, God exerting the grace directly on me. The church has no role in helping move forward the salvation. Therefore, people are saved by God's grace and nothing else. People need to be a good Christian and maintain faith2Priesthood of all believers - you are your own priest. iiWhat's Luther's thinking on the secular side? - have to keep the secular power and people have to obey the secular authority bPeasant Rebellion in Germ, and Switzerland (1524-1526)iOnce people have a question on authority, they keep doing it - hence the ideas from MunzeriiKings and princes welcome Luther's ideas because it is very lucrative for them - they can collect extra tax money bReformation in England in the 1530s iAt the top: Henry VIII - last person to be attracted to reformation 1Budget problems - the power of the reformation is completely tied up with financial considerations 2King on both secular and religious side of the tree iiAt the bottom: Calvinism (Puritanism) - John Calvin (1509-1594)bRevolutionary effects of Calvinism iThey question religious authority as well as the political authority from the king - the new feature of England reformation During the medieval times, as Christianity spreads out, the church got more power. The authority does not come from the average people, but from the God. The question is who stands closest to the God? Pope or King? Who is higher? (Picture - Napoleon's coronation) In the picture, Napoleon is holding the crown while the Pope sits in the middle. The modern politics is prone it away from any control by the church. What's in the tree picture? 1Dual picture of authority - secular authority and spiritual authority 2Hierarchy (Average citizen - landlord - King)
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3Natural, God-ordained 4Unchanging (violation of God's will is the quickest way to damnation) Locke: Second Treatise of Government (1689)AThe State of Nature or Original Condition of human beingsWhat would it be like when you go out and find there is no law or government? - You should bescared because people are going to taking things from you What is human nature really like? aJohn Locke: in state of nature, people are naturally free, equal and rational iFree - But in what sense? People are free to do what they want unless they do not intrude on other's right to liberty and freedom. People arelimited by the law of nature- the law from God, which is morally universe 1What is the content of the law? - each person is created by the God and we cannot place one person higher than another. Since God creates everything -
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