IJIBM_Vol7No1_Feb2015 (1).pdf

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Unformatted text preview: VOLUME 7 NUMBER 1 Feb 2015 ISSN 2076-9202 (Print) ISSN 2218-046X (Online) International Journal of Information, Business and Management International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 International Journal of Information, Business and Management ABOUT JOURNAL The International Journal of Information, Business and Management (IJIBM) was first published in 2009, and is published 4 issues per year. IJIBM is indexed and abstracted in EBSCO, DOAJ, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory, Cabell's Directory, ProQuest(ABI/INFORM Global), IndexCopernicus, JournalSeek, New Jour, getCITED, Directory of Research Journals Indexing, Open J-Gate, Universal Impact Factor, CiteFactor, ResearchBib, EBSCO Open Access Journals, Scientific Indexing Service, InnoSpace - SJIF Scientific Journal Impact Factor, The Index of Information Systems Journals, National Central Library Taiwan, National Library of Australia.Since 2011, the IJIBM is listed and inedxed in the Cabell's Directory in Computer Science and Business Information Systems ( ), which is accepted in many universities for credit towards tenure and promotion.Since 2013, the IJIBM has been included into the EBSCO (Business Source Corporate Plus database), one of the largest full-text databases around the world.Since 2013, the IJIBM has been included into the ProQuest(ABI/INFORM Global) list. IJIBM is an international journal that brings together research papers on all aspects of Information, Business and Management in all areas. The journal focuses on research that stems from academic and industrial need and can guide the activities of managers, consultants, software developers and researchers. It publishes accessible articles on research and industrial applications, new techniques and development trends. IJIBM serves the academic and professional purposes for those such as scientists, professionals, educators, social workers and managers. It provides new methodology, techniques, models and practical applications in various areas. i ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 International Journal of Information, Business and Management CONTENTS 1 Publisher, Editor in Chief, Managing Editor and Editorial Board 2 The Impact of Political Advertising through Social Networking Sites on Egyptians’ Political Orientations and Choices Khaled A. Gad 3 Connotation of “Human Capital: Concept, Effects and Benefits (Review) Dr. Muhammad Tariq Khan, Dr. Asad Afzal Humayun, Dr. Muhammad Sajjad 4 Intellectual Capital & Organizational Advantage: an economic approach to its valuation and measurement Fragouli Evaggelia 5 Integrating David programming model with Balance Scorecard (BSC) in order to decrease or eliminate the weaknesses of David’s model and performance improvement (case study: Mahan air lines) Mohammad reza Shojaei, Maryam Mottaghi 6 A Comparative Study of NAV (Net Asset Value) Returns of Open-ended and Close-ended Mutual Funds in Pakistan Nawaz Ahmad, ImamuddinKhoso, RizwanRaheem Ahmed 7 Information Management in Defense of White-Collar Criminals Petter Gottschalk 8 Business Intelligence Rationalization: A Business Rules Approach Rajeev Kaula 9 Effect of Psychological Empowerment, Distributive Justice and Job Autonomy on Organizational Commitment Faisal Rashid Gohar, Mohsin Bashir, Muhammad Abrar, Faisal Asghar 10 IMPACT OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT ON PROFITABILITY OF TEXTILE SECTOR OF PAKISTAN Qazi Muhammad Yasir Ayub 11 L’Oreal’ Baby Girl PerfumeMarketing Strategy Hemaloshinee Vasudevan 12 Cloud Computing Data Security for Personal Health Record by Using Attribute Based Encryption Neetha Xavier, V.Chandrasekar 13 THE IMPACT OF RAPID TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS ON INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY ii ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 Dr. EVANGELIA FRAGOULI, PETROS FOUNTOUKIDIS 14 Factors Affecting Impulse Buying and Percentage of Impulse Buying in Total Purchasing Dr. Muhammad Tariq Khan, Dr. Asad Afzal Humayun, Dr. Muhammad Sajjad 15 Energy Consumption and Economic Growth Nexus: Empirical Evidence from Tunisia Kais Saidi, Sami Hammami 16 The Role of Training in Small Business Performance Rami Alasadi, Hicham Al Sabbagh 17 FDI IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE FRAMEWORK OF ARDL: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN SALEEM KHAN, ULFAT JEHAN 18 THE INFLUENCE OF ECOTOURISM DEVELOPMENT OF JATILUWIH VILLAGE IN TABANAN REGENCY OF BALI PROVINCE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMY, SOCIAL CULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT Anak Agung Putu Agung, Ni Ketut Aryani, Ferry Jie 19 A Study of Inter Sectoral Linkages in India Dr Mousumi Bhattacharya, Dr Sharad Nath Bhattacharya 20 APPLICATION OF METHODOLOGY FOR BUSINESS PROCESS IMPROVEMENT IN SPECIALIZED DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY Elizabeta Mitreva, PhD, Nako Taskov, PhD, Snezana Crnkovic iii ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 International Journal of Information, Business and Management Publisher: Elite Hall Publishing House Editor in Chief: Managing Editor: Dr. Muzaffar Ahmed (Bangladesh) Dr. Jia Chi Tsou E-mail:[email protected] Associate Professor, Department of Business Administration China University of Technology, Taiwan E-mail: [email protected] Editorial Board: Dr. Claudio De Stefano Prof. Paolo Pietro Biancone Dr. Michael A. Hignite, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Computer Science Professor of Financial Accounting, Faculty of Management Professor, Department of Computer Information Systems, University of Cassino, Italy. and Economics College of Business E-mail: [email protected] University of Turin, Italy Missouri State University, USA Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Dr. Jen Ming Chen Dr. Morteza Rasti Barzoki Mr. Mohsen Fathollah Bayati Professor, Institute of Industrial Management Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering Department of Industrial Engineering National Central University, Taiwan Isfahan University of Technology, Iran Iran University of Science and Technology, Iran E-mail: [email protected] E-mail: [email protected] E-mail: [email protected] Dr. Edgardo Palza Vargas Dr. Solomon Markos Mr. Olu Ojo Telfer School of Management Assistant Professor, Department of Management Lecturer, Department of Business Administration University of Ottawa, Canada Arbaminch University, Ethiopia Osun State University, Nigeria Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Dr. Mohammed-Aminu Sanda Dr. Khalid Zaman Dr. Kartinah Ayupp Visiting Research Fellow, Lulea University of Technology, Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences Deputy Dean, Economics and Business Sweden COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia Senior Lecturer, Department of Organization and Human Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Dr. Malyadri. Pacha Dr. Arif Anjum Mr. Andrew McCalister Principal, Government Degree College Assistant Professor, M.S.G. Arts, Science & Commerce Global Research Awardee, Royal Academy of Engineering, Affiliated to Osmania University, India College, Malegaon, India University of Cambridge, UK Email: [email protected] Managing Editor, International Journal of Management Email: [email protected] Resource Management, University of Ghana, Ghana Email: [email protected] Studies Email: [email protected] Dr. Mohsin Shaikh Dr. M. Razaullah Khan Mr. Kai Pan Professor & Head, Department of Management Studies Associate Professor, Department of Commerce & Research Assistant & Ph.D. Candidate, Department of SKN College of Engineering, Pune, India Management Science Software and Information Systems Email: [email protected] Maulana Azad College, Aurangabad, India University of North Carolina (UNC Charlotte), USA Email: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Dr. Sundar Kumararaj Dr. Mohammad Alawin Mr. Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy Associate Associate Professor, Business Economics Department Visiting lecturer, PhD candidate , Banking University HCMC, Distance Education, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan Vietnam Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India E-mail: [email protected] Email: [email protected] Professor, Commerce Wing, Directorate of E-Mail: [email protected] Web: ISSN 2076-9202 (Print) ISSN 2218-046X (Online) iv ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 The Impact of Political Advertising through Social Networking Sites on Egyptians’ Political Orientations and Choices Khaled A. Gad [email protected] Abstract This paper examines the influence of political advertising through social networking sites on Egyptians’ political orientations and choices. The objective of this paper is to determine how Egyptians’ social networking sites users are interested in political promoting campaigns and how they deal with such campaigns. Also the paper measures the impact of these campaigns in influencing the current political events, the individuals’ political choices and orientations, and the extent to which they can rely on such campaigns. A structured questionnaire has been developed and posted for two weeks on social networking sites; only 397 questionnaires were valid for statistical analysis. Research findings showed that Egyptians are interested in the political promoting campaigns through social networking sites, Egyptians believe that political promoting campaigns have a significant effect on the political situation, and Egyptians deal positively with the political promoting campaigns. Furthermore the political promoting campaigns through social networking sites have a low effect on Egyptians’ political orientations and choices. Finally, Egyptians believe that political promoting campaigns through social networking sites have low level of credibility. These results can provide insights for Egyptian politicians to use social networking sites as an essential promoting channel to achieve the appropriate change in Egyptians’ political orientations and beliefs. Keywords: Political Marketing, Political Advertising, Political Promoting Campaigns, Social Networking Sites, Egypt. 1- Introduction The ways social media are changing communication have received a lot of media attention in the past few years. Social media tools are said to give people the ability to connect and unite in a crisis, raise awareness of an issue worldwide, and usurp authoritarian governments. These tools can be used to quickly get information, such as, to locate a nearby hospital in case of emergencies. The increased awareness brought on by social media can help raise a significant amount of money for a cause. For the first time, everyone can be a journalist. As countries around the world discover the influence of social media, citizens have begun to use its power to improve their lives; one such country, Egypt, has created a new standard for social reform through social media and networking. Egypt possesses a long and rich history, a cohesive kingdom from around 1 ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 3200 B.C. Over thousands of years, various nations ruled Egypt; in 1952, it finally gained independence from outside rulers, ousting the British-backed monarchy. Since then Egypt has been a republic, and until the revolution of 2011, was ruled by President Hosni Mubarak who had attempted to reform Egypt’s slow economy by decentralizing it. However, that didn’t work, and Egypt’s citizens remain poor, 20 percent living below poverty level. The country ranks 21st in the world for Internet users, with just over 20 million users in 2009 out of a population of 83 million or roughly one quarter (The World Factbook, 2011). This is surprising if one considers the Internet a vital instrument in the Egyptian revolt. Social media and networking have come to define a new generation of communication and have created a platform that possesses limitless abilities to connect, share, and explore our world. Social media is content created and shared by individuals on the web using available websites which allow members of the site to create and display their photos, thoughts, and videos. Social media allows people to share content with a select group or with everyone. Social media is a way for communicating with one or more people at the same time. These sites allow people to communicate in real-time; thereby effectively developing democracy. This is because, social media sites give people a voice to express their opinions about government, television, political leaders, and any other issues of concern. Sites like Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube allow power to be shifted to people. They create two-way communication between individuals or small groups and the general public. Social media is not a new idea, however; people have used technology for decades to communicate, mobilize voters for political participation and, “while it has only recently become part of mainstream culture and the business world, people have been using digital media for networking, socializing and information gathering – almost exactly like now – for over 30 years” (Borders, 2009). Political marketing bears a number of similarities to the marketing of goods and services. Consumers choose among brands just as voters choose among candidates or parties. Consumers display brand preferences (party loyalty and party identification) and are exposed to mass media (campaign advertising) and direct sales (“get-out-the vote” efforts), which may rely on various emotional appeals and social influences. Candidates, like firms, choose product positions (policy positions), determine promotional mix (allocate campaign resources), and conduct market research (polling). These decisions need to account for and anticipate competitors' actions, implying that candidates participate in games of strategic interaction. However, there are also important differences. First, unlike consumers who can usually purchase their preferred product, the winner-take-all nature of elections ensures that in almost every election, a significant proportion of voters choose a candidate who is not elected. Second, similar to consumer choices, political attitudes and choices are inherently determined in a social context, but the election process (e.g., its winner-take-all nature) provides voters a significant incentive to influence others and thus dramatically magnify social considerations compared to many product and service choices. Third, there is a distinct temporal rhythm to political marketing, with most elections (purchase opportunities) 2 ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 occurring every 2 to 4 years, each with a clear endpoint. Fourth, while firms probably prefer to maximize the sum of discounted profits, a political candidate's objective function is murkier (e.g., a candidate might participate in a race with little expectation of winning in order to build a reputation that could serve her in the future toward non-political goals). Recently, research opportunities in political marketing have attracted a growing number of scholars across the field. The central role of competition naturally attracts those academics skilled in applying analytical and empirical modeling. The importance of communications and persuasion attracts those who seek to bridge behavioral work in consumer choice to political settings. Political campaigns are some of the most expensive marketing efforts in existence today (The Economist 2010). Yet, research in marketing and political science is inconclusive on a number of fundamental questions about the marketing of political candidates: How does advertising affect voters (Lau et al. 1999)? How should candidates allocate marketing budgets across campaign activities (Bartels 1988; Gerber and Green 2000)? How should candidates choose policy positions (Adams et al. 2005)? These questions fall at the intersection of marketing and political science. Despite early efforts to draw attention to such questions (Rothschild 1978), marketing scholars have largely ignored them; making this area a fertile ground for research. The goal of this paper is to determine how Egyptians’ social networking sites users are interested in political promoting campaigns and how they deal with such campaigns. Also the paper measures the impact of these campaigns in influencing the current political events, the individuals’ political choices and orientations, and the extent to which they can rely on such campaigns. 2- Literature Review 2.1. Political Marketing Harrop (1990) perceives political marketing not just about political advertising, party political broadcasts and electoral speeches, but about covering the whole area of party positioning in the electoral market. Kavanagh (1995) sees political marketing as electioneering, i.e. as a set of strategies and tools to trace and study public opinion before and during an election campaign in order to develop campaign communications and to assess their impact. A similar view is expressed by Scammell (1995). Maarek (1995) conceptualizes political marketing as, “a complex process, the outcome of a more global effort implicating all the factors of the politician’s political communication”, and emphasizes that, “political marketing’ is the general method of ‘political communication’, one of its means”. He considers the introduction of marketing in politics as an outcome of “the elaboration of a policy of political communication…a global strategy of design, rationalization and conveyance of modern political communication”. One terminological inconsistency should be noted though. In the aforementioned figure, Maarek appears to equate a company’s consumer products with a political party’s political 3 ISSN 2076-9202 International Journal of Information, Business and Management, Vol. 7, No.1, 2015 communications. Such a parallel cannot be drawn, as a party’s “product” consists not of its political communications but of; a) its ideological platform and its set of policy proposals, b) the party leader, the candidates and party officials and c) party members in general. In Maarek’s view, political marketing has become an integral and vital component of political communication. In his words: “Political communication…encompasses the entire marketing process, from preliminary market study to testing and targeting”. It should be noted that Maarek admits that the main areas of application of political marketing are image-making campaigns and election campaigns. Lock and Harris (1996) point out that “political marketing is concerned with communicating with party members, media and prospective sources of funding as well as the electorate”, while Wring (1997) defines political marketing as “the party or candidate’s use of opinion research and environmental analysis to produce and promote a competitive offering which will help realize organizational aims and satisfy groups of electors in exchange for their votes”. O’ Cass (1996) argues that the use of marketing “offers political parties the ability to address diverse voter concerns and needs through marketing analyses, planning, implementation and control of political and electoral campaigns”. Taking this one step forward he argues that “the central purpose of political marketing is to enable political parties and voters to make the most appropriate and satisfactory decisions”. O’ Cass (1996) uses an exchange model to define political marketing. According to him, when voters cast their votes, a transaction takes place. In return for their votes, the party/candidate offers better government and policies after election. This way, O’ Cass argues that marketing can be applied to political processes as it is speci...
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  • Fall '18
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  • Sociology, Political campaign, ISSN, social networking sites, International Journal of Information, political promoting campaigns

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