MKF2121 Week 11 (6 slides per page).pdf - Lecture11 Concept of Causality A statement such as\"X causes Y will have the following meaning to an ordinary

MKF2121 Week 11 (6 slides per page).pdf - Lecture11 Concept...

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Lecture 11 MKF2121 1 Lecture 11 Experimental Research Department of Marketing Dr. Stanislav Stakhovych MKF2121 Marketing Research Methods Types of Research 2 Research Exploratory Descriptive Causal Field Experiments Laboratory Experiments Marketing Research Process Step 1: Defining the Problem Step 2: Planning a Research Design Step 3: Planning a Sample Step 4: Collecting the Data Step 5: Analysing the Data Step 6: Formulating Conclusions and Reporting 3 Concept of Causality A statement such as " X causes Y " will have the following meaning to an ordinary person and to a scientist. ______________________________________________________________________ Ordinary Meaning Scientific Meaning ______________________________________________________________________ X is the only cause of Y . X is only one of a number of possible causes of Y . X must always lead to Y The occurrence of X makes the ( X is a deterministic occurrence of Y more probable cause of Y ). ( X is a probabilistic cause of Y ). It is possible to prove that X is a We can never prove that X is a cause of Y . cause of Y . At best, we can infer that X is a cause of Y . ______________________________________________________________________ 4 Conditions for Causality Concomitant variation – The degree a “cause” X , and an “effect” Y , occur together or vary together as predicted Time order of occurrence – The “causing” event must occur either before or simultaneously with the effect The absence of other possible causal factors – The variable being investigated should be the only possible causal explanation 5 Experimental Design An experimental design is a set of procedures specifying the test units independent variables (treatments) dependent variables extraneous variables 6