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Introduction to Immunology notes

Introduction to Immunology notes - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Immunology Cells and Tissues Bone marrow and Thymus are the primary immune tissues. Spleen and lymph nodes are secondary Leukocytes of blood include lymphocytes (B and T), monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils All of these originate from the same multipotent progenitor cells that give rise to erythrocytes→ Hematopoietic stem cell . They are all derived from pathways controlled by growth factors called cytokine s Hapten - is a small molecule that is not normally antigenic. Antibodies to recognize this molecule are gotten by alkylating (covalently coupling) them to a large protein so that antibodies are raised against the whole complex. Powerful technique in preparation of antibodies against molecules such as steroids, drug compounds –immunoassays Nonspecific Cellular Responses Leukocytes- invade sites of tissue damage by squeezing through endothelial junctions of capillaries into interstitial space. The process of activating these leukocytes is chemotaxis Chemotaxins- Also cause endothelial cells to increase the size of their intercellular junctions and their leakiness. This causes circulating phagocytic leukocytes to be attracted to the area (neutrophils)— who penetrate spaces between endothelial cells → Quickly leads to Phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils → They engulf particles Phagocytosis- receptor-mediated process initiated by binding particulate material to receptors on the external face of the phagocytic cell. Opsonins- proteins which will sometimes coat the bacterium, targeting it to the phagocyte --All taken together and Lysosome enzymes digest the engulfed particle After some are taken into lymphatic drainage towards nodes Activation of Naïve Immune Cells Fragments of the engulfed immunogen ( antigen ) are incorporated into surface membrane, becoming Antigen Presenting Cells. The membrane complexes are Major Histocompatability Complexes (MHC- class II)- now serve to activate other immune cells that recognize and bind to the MHC- antigen complex B-Lymphocytes - From bone marrow, produce antibodies. There are small numbers of clones of a huge population of different lympocytic cell lines. Antibodies are manufactured and incorporated into their plasmalemmas If their antibodies match the antigen then they bind to the MHC AC on the APC and become activated→ stimulation of mitosis, or clonal expansion, and establishing memory cells and effector (plasma) cells.
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Memory Cells function as a cohort of pre-selected stem cells increasing their number by mitosis Effector Cells differentiate further and enter blood to becomes plasma cells—secret large quantities of antibodies Nature of Antibody A particular antibody molecule interacts with a discrete portion of the immunogen that
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