Test2Notes - February 25, 2008 Shape preserving population...

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February 25, 2008 Shape preserving population scaled map, What do you notice? India and China are big Resource Use and Other Atmospheric Impacts? o Global Warming o Smog (China) o Acid Rain (Tennessee, Kentucky, Virginia) Potential contributor: burning coal, and sulfur dioxide is the specific element nitrous oxide, comes out of cars o Ozone layer Where is Acid Rain a Problem? o In VA? Yes, its yearly damage amounts to millions of dollars o Why isn’t the pH of rainwater 7? Carbon dioxide, when it interacts it makes it more acidic Acid Rain o What is the pH of “natural” rain? “Natural” rain water has a pH of about 5-7 Acid rain is below five Stomach acid 1.5 Vinegar 2.5 Cola 3.5 Sea Water 8.6 o How does Acid rain become acidic Air, naturally, CO2, carbonic acids Soils, naturally, organic acids (Humic) Humans: SO2 (sulfuric acid), NOx (nitric acid), CO2 (carbonic acid) o Acid Rain, Who is responsible? The east coast o Many power companies are using “low sulfur coal” to minimize sulfur emissions (VA!) Sulfur can also be stripped from the emissions stack o Sulfur dioxide emissions to the atmosphere Sulfur dioxide emissions in the US peaked in 1973 1970 and 1990 Clean Air Acts led to 38% decrease in emissions in late 1990s o What are the consequences of acid rain? Many aquatic species and plants cannot survive in acidic waters, at pH 5.5 clams and snails are gone, six and up everything is ok, at 4 only frogs can survive, at 4.5 only perch and frogs, and at 5 only trout, perch, frogs, and salamanders….if you see mayflies then most likely it is healthy water o Should dominion power build another coal burning power plant near Wise, VA? No, emits lots more CO2 into the air February 27, 2008 o Acid Rain affects trout in Virginia o Acid Rain, Soil, and Rocks How does rain water get neutralized? Naturally alkaline soils and rocks (bas), Carbonates o CaCO 3 + H + Ca 2+ + HCO 3-
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Silicates o Acid Rain, Mercury Emissions? Can we eliminate acid rain in the future? Modern coal plants use a scrubber that removes SO 2 Where is the largest gold producing mine in the world? o Cajamarca, Peru Minera Yanacocha o 3.3 million ounces (2005) o $950/oz o $3 billion/year o How is gold mined today? Looking for an anomalous concentration of gold .0000001% of a rock is gold Today we must use sodium cyanide solutions to get the gold out The gold stored in the federal reserve bank of New York is secured in the most unusual vault. It rest n the bedrock of Manhattan island, 80 feet below street level and 50 below sea level
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Test2Notes - February 25, 2008 Shape preserving population...

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