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Assignment 4 :Nuclear Power & Questions on Solar PowerEE 444: Power Systems TechnologyDate: 09/16/17Presented by: Shardul SinghAnswer 1: Following the Tsunami and Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011. The active reactors in Fukushima Daiichi Power Plant were automatically shut down their sustained fission reaction. Insufficient cooling led to the melt down of three nuclear meltdowns, hydrogen-air explosions and release of radioactive material. Due to the effect of Tsunami lead to disablement of emergency generators that would have provided power to control and operate the pumps necessary to cool the reactors. The accident was rated 7 on the INES scale, due to high radioactive releases over days 4 to 6, eventually a total of some 940 PBq.Reviewing the Fukushima incident (please refer image (1) on page 5) and the other nuclear disasters, few safety factors (please refer image (2) on page 5) might be the considered to avoid such incidents in the future: 1) Risk Assessment: One of the most important factors is the prior risk assessment and the impactof natural disasters that could have on the power plant and the surrounding areas. Referring to the report of Nuclear Accident Independent Investigation Commission(NAIIC) said that Tokyo Electric Power Company(TEPCO) failed to meet the requirements. Firstly, analyzing the risks or the potential risks that can danger the operation or the maintenanceof the plant should be scrutinized at few levels in every certain amount of given time. Secondly, there should be an installation of new setup of the indicators for the natural disasters. It is one of the ways to ensure the safety or if not complete safety then at least there will be a sufficient time for the evacuation. Artificial intelligence can be used to get the necessary data (about the history of natural disasters in that area) for any upcoming possible threats like earthquakes, typhoons, volcanic eruptions or tsunamis that can damage the infrastructure or the proceedings of the plant.2)Basic Safety Requirements: Safety for the for the employees, workers including the people living in the surrounding areas is the second most important factor to avoid these kind of incidents happening in the future and ensure the uninterrupted power supply. Following the standards of International atomic energy agency can guarantee the safety of the all around environment. Proper training of workers and employees should be done in a schedule to review and aware the workers about the safety rules and regulations being followed in and around the power plant.Guidelines by IAEA to ensure the safety are listed below:Governmental, Legal and Regulatory Framework for SafetyLeadership and Management for SafetyRadiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety StandardsSafety Assessment for Facilities and ActivitiesPredisposal Management of Radioactive Waste