Psychology HCC Chapter 1 Word.docx - Psychology HCCCustomEdition Chapter1 andmentalprocesses.Behaviorincludes reactions:talking,facialexpressions

Psychology HCC Chapter 1 Word.docx - Psychology...

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Psychology  The Pearson Custom Library HCC Custom Edition Chapter 1 Psychology- the scientific study of behavior  and mental processes.  Behavior includes  all of our outward or overt actions and  reactions:  talking, facial expressions,  movements. Mental processes- all internal, covert  (hidden) activity of our minds:  thinking,  feeling, remembering. Scientific- the method of observing must  rule out what the observer “expects” to see  or “wants” to see.  To be precise,  psychologists use the scientific method to  study psychology and to rule out bias.
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Psychology’s Goals: The goals to uncover the mysteries of  human and animal behavior are description, explanation, prediction, and control. 1.  Description:  What is Happening?  Observing a behavior and noting  everything about it:  what is happening,  where it happens, to whom it happens,  and under what circumstances it seems  to happen.                                     Example:  Why do so many computer  scientists seem to be male?   Observations are made noting that many  “non-techies” stereotype computer  scientists as people who are obsessed  with computers, computer games, junk  food, and science fiction gadgets--a very  masculine ambiance.     That’s what “seems” to be happening.
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These observations are a starting place for  the next goal:  Why do females seem to  avoid this environment? 2.  Explanation:  Why is this Happening? The psychologist might come up with  tentative explanations like “women feel they don’t belong such masculine  environments.”  Finding explanations for  behavior is an important step in forming  theories of behavior. Theory- a general explanation of a set of  observations or facts.   Goal of description: provides the  observations.   Goal of explanation helps to build the  theory. Psychologist Sapna Cheryan and  colleagues set up 4 experiments with over  250 female and male student participants  who were not studying computer science.
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First experiment:  students came in a small  classroom with 1 of 2 sets of objects:  either Star Trek posters, video-game boxes, and  Coke cans, or nature posters, art, a  dictionary, and coffee mugs.  Students were told to ignore the objects because they  were sharing the classroom with another  class.  The students spent several minutes  in the classroom.  While sitting in the room,  they were told to fill out questionaires about their feelings toward computer science.   The male students’ attitudes were not  different between the two environments.
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  • Spring '17
  • John Jackson
  • Psychology, psy., mental processes.  Behavior

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