Unit 3.pdf - 3.1 Technology and Form I 1 Earth Water and Sun Sun-dried mud bricks\/adobe dirt sand water straw Abundant easy modular flexible plastic

Unit 3.pdf - 3.1 Technology and Form I 1 Earth Water and...

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Sun-dried mud bricks/ adobe : dirt, sand, water, straw Abundant; easy; modular; flexible, plastic forms High thermal mass ; weakness = moisture, maintenance 1. Earth, Water, and Sun Brittle: wooden roof for wider span, reinforcement Most buildings use COMPOSITE material systems 3.1: Technology and Form I Saharan adobe: same resources = similar forms 2. Materials and Design Stone monuments = disproportionate survivors of time ‘Civilized’ method; racist doubts about Great Zimbabwe 3. Enduring vs. Typical Most ancient architecture: less permanent materials U.S. construction: standardized, mass-produced lumber Weaknesses: nailed joints; frame vs. shear forces 4. Balloon Frame One nail vs. 10,000; plywood sheathing for strength Concrete foundation, protective ‘skin’ for wood frame
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5. Monumental Wood Architecture Wood: doesn’t have to be hidden away Good design, maintenance = survival Framed design: systems of connection 6. Solidity and Flexibility 12th c. Chinese builders: woodworking details Joints: lock pieces, permit expansion/contraction Bracketed frame: transfer loads to ground Brick and Terra Cotta: mud brick => durable Energy-intense, centralized fabrication Fire, insect, moisture-resistant vs. wood Modular ; small, uniform size; easy to transport Must be set in mortar to become stable surface 7. Baked Earth Brick architecture: from blocks to curves Mortar = flexible ‘cushion’ for design 8. Arches and Domes
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Saqqara: First pyramid = shift from mud brick to stone Oldest known building made entirely of cut stone Imhotep’s leap: also technological and administrative Stone: great for piles; roofing interior ‘rooms’ = hard Pyramids’ interior chambers: small, w/ granite ceilings 9. Stone: Still the Favorite Parthenon : post-and-lintel, not a big stone pile Mount Pentelikus: fine white marble (10 miles) Challenge: hoisting up entablature blocks Blocks: reinforced with metal dowels & cramps 10. Mountain of Marble Most of the roof: wooden trusses, marble tiles Best way to span with stone? Use arches and domes Corbelling : all layers of masonry are horizontal 11. Stone Ceilings? 12. Miracle Stone
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Cement, sand, lime, aggregate, & water; light, transportable Needs advanced design, organized work force: forms, pouring Concrete, engineering, organization: huge domes & vaults 13. Mix, Pour & Wait Romans: enclosed more interior space than any civilization Architectural splendor = standard throughout empire 14. Sheer Volume Greek theaters: built into natural hillsides 15. Theaters without Mountains ‘Ampitheater’ = freestanding, urban volume Concrete = friable ; needs a hard surface Roman construction: 3-layered ‘sandwich’ Encasing = stone pyramids or flat bricks 16. Structure vs. Skin Visible surface = plaster or stone Veneer Disconnect between image and structure 17. Vitruvius, Structure, and Legitimacy Vitruvius:
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