Audio Lecture Notes: Lessons 1-13 - Lesson#1 Introduction...

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Lesson #1: Introduction Adolescence vs. Emerging Adulthood Emerging adulthood is a term created by the textbook author Adolescence: being stretched out as children reach adolescence earlier and stay in adolescence for longer oA lot of associated issues are affecting people into their early-20s Adolescence lasts from age 10-18, emerging adulthood from age 18-25 Definitions of adolescence have changed over time historically and culturally Tasks of Adolescents In Canada and USA, adolescents and young adults have tasks they are expected to do before they are genuinely considered adults Forming an identity oExperiment with different roles to determine who they really are and how they fit into the world oErikson: adolescents develop ideas about occupations, political beliefs, religion by end of adolescence Many young adults in post-secondary change career paths, so forming an identity still happens in the 20s (or later) Adolescent Issues Throughout History Past 100 years: some issues are the same, some are different oE.g. the concept of adolescence didnt exist 100 years ago just went from children to adults Historically oIn North America, forming an identity (finding yourself) and choosing the right occupation for you was unheard of Adolescence issues of puberty remain throughout history oDealing with bodily changes and what it means for the individual, their families, and society has changed but puberty remains Studying Adolescence Longitudinal studies are essential to examining the nature of development Ethnographic studies are increasingly used by psychologists
Lesson #2: Biological Foundations Reaching Puberty Age of reaching puberty has changed significantly in Canada over the past 100 years Menarche (first menstrual period) has been the measure of the start of puberty for girls since it is an easy objective measure Assumption is that girls start puberty 2 years prior to boys Girls used to get periods between ages 15-17, but has now started at age 12 in some girls oLikely because of increased body fat (not as involved in labour as they used to be) Babies wont continually happen younger and younger because our biology has a set range and our environment affects our bodies oRegardless of environment, age of puberty wont go down a lot further even if too many estrogens are circulating in young girlsbodies Timing of Puberty Girls are generally better off experiencing puberty on time or later; boys are better off starting early oReason: environmental society tends to admire a certain muscular vshape in men and when boys hit puberty they tend to develop in that direction This results in higher self-esteem for the boys oOpposite is true for girls as they will grow taller before boys, and society has a perception that boys should be taller, this belief may negatively affect their self-confidence There are cultural influences on the timing of puberty o

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