Notes_ Ch 14.pdf - Chapter 14 Population Urbanization Intro Colima Mexico Celia Angel 13 kids with 14 yr old being oldest farthest in school Single room

Notes_ Ch 14.pdf - Chapter 14 Population Urbanization Intro...

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Chapter 14: Population & Urbanization Intro Colima, Mexico: Celia & Angel: 13 kids with 14 yr old being oldest & farthest in school Single room house; no chairs; no closets; she was very excited for her next child Population in Global Perspective Demography: study of size, composition, growth or shrinkage and distribution of human populations; doomed to be overpopulated with little space? Will the planet be able to support our overgrowing population? A Planet with No Space for Enjoying Life? Lowly potato: spanish conquistadores found it in the Andes Mountains & Europeans were suspicious. But became main food of lower classes, lots of potato, fertility increased & death rate dropped, Europe’s population soared, 2x during 1700s Growth alarmed Malthus & sign of doom; he wrote an essay on the principle of population; he proposed: Malthus Theorem: Population grows geometrically (2-4-6), food supply increases only arithmetically (1-2-3) or if birth go unchecked, population will outstrip its food supply The New Malthusians Type of demographers: New Malthusians; today’s situation is at grim & maybe grimmer than Malthus imagined; world’s population is growing so fast that in just the time it takes you to read this chapter, another 20-40,000 babies will be born Growth Picture: 448 Exponential Growth Curve: a pattern of growth in which numbers double during approximately equal intervals, showing a steep acceleration in later stages Faunce: we have entered fourth week of curve; it took from beginning of time until 1800 for world’s population to reach its first billion In 43 years, population has doubled to 3.5 to 7 billion; every minute 165 babies are born; in next dozen years, world will add as many people as it did during entire time from when first humans began to walk until 1800 The Anti-Malthusians Optimistic type of demographers: they believe that Europe’s Demographic Transition: a three-stage historical process of change in size of populations - first: high birth rates & high death rates & stable, second: high birth rates & low death rates & rapidly growing, third: low birth rates & low death rates & stable, fourth: population shrinkage - deaths outnumber births in Most Industrialized Nations & Least; Europe: stage two Least: growth is already slowing
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Who Is Correct? Death rates dropped in Least when food increased & health improved with hybrid seeds, herbicides & techniques of public hygiene Conflict: growing of least industrialized nations as a threat to global balance of power and annual growth has dropped 33% from 2.1 (1960s) to 1.4 Anti-Malthusians: slowing of growth as signal for stage 3; population growth leveled off - 12 years for each billion but New Malthusians - just taking longer to hit Anti: our future will be opposite of what New Malthusians worry about: there’s going to be too few kids in world -> Population Shrinkage: populations are getting smaller; 83 countries - births are lower than death rates Some predict a demographic free fall: stage 4 it’ll peak then grow smaller; in 200
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