Notes_ Ch 15.pdf - Chapter 15 Social Changes the Environment Intro 25 years mapping Caracol Belize oldest largest city in Americas radar to map failed

Notes_ Ch 15.pdf - Chapter 15 Social Changes the...

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Chapter 15: Social Changes & the Environment Intro 25 years mapping Caracol, Belize oldest & largest city in Americas; radar to map failed cause of thick jungle Chase: LiDAr (light detection & ranging); house mounds, roadways & agricultural terraces Technology, like laser imagery, driving force in social change How Social Change Transforms Social Life Social Change: a shift in the characteristics of culture & society, vital part of social life The Four Social Revolutions Thousands of years ago: humans domesticated plants & animals, first social revolution allowed hunting & gathering to develop into horticultural & pastoral societies Plow: second revolution, agricultural societies emerged Third: by invention of steam engine into Industrial Revolution Fourth: now, stimulated by invention of microchip Mapping of human genome system pushing into new type of society, based on biotech From Gemeinschaft to Gesellschaft Social revolution: full blown, little of current way of life remains, extensive & transformed people’s relationships; moving to city: broke intimate relationship with impersonal associations. Fundamental shift G to G Gemeinschaft = traditional, small, rural & slow changing societies, men dominate social life & divisions of labor were rigid. People live in extended families, little formal education, treat illness at home, morals in absolute terms & past is key to understand the present Gesellschaft = large, urbanized & fast-changing. More fluid divisions of labor between sexes. 3rd stage of demographic transition = smaller families & low rates of infant mortality. Formal education, future-oriented, higher incomes & more material possessions Change: transformed people’s social relationships & their orientations to life The Industrial Revolution & Capitalism Marx: when feudal society broke up, threw people off land & created surplus of labor. When moved to cities, they were exploited by capitalists (owners of means of production). Thus: the antagonistic relationships with capitalists & workers today Weber: capitalism to Protestant Reformation; reformation stripped assurance that church saved them; sign to go to heaven = prosperity = hard working & thrifty = economic surplus = capitalism & laid groundwork for industrial revolution
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Modernization or Industrial Revolution: transformation of traditional societies to industrial; ideal types of differences: pg 484 (more/less, not either-or); technology has caused an unevenness; like Uganda - traditional but use computers & formal education When technology changes, societies change. Medicine in Least: death drops, but birth remains high = hunger & migration to cities Social Movements People band together to demand some change they want to or resist some change they don’t want; sweep across national borders Either subdued affairs or dynamic in different cultures Bursting on scene = Arab uprisings across North Africa in 2011 Conflict, Power & Global Politics Most attention to things that affect our own lives or make headlines; but out of sight:
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