CHAPTER 8 - CHAPTER 8 4:21:00 PM memory is learning that...

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CHAPTER 8 05/03/2008 17:21:00 memory is learning that has persisted over time, information that has ben stored  and can be retrieved memory process weaker emotions means weaker memories first record to-be remembered information as a fleeting sensory memory there we process information into a short-term memory bin where we encode  through rehearsal finally information goes to long-term memory for later retrieval working memory o newer understanding of second stage that concentrates on the active  processing of information; because we can’t focus attention on  everything coming in, we focus on novel or important things; these  incoming stimuli plus information we retrieve from long-term memory  become conscious short-term memories in a temp work place where  we actively associate new and old information and solve problems;  content fades quickly unless we keep using or rehearsing INFORMATION PROCESSING short term memory o encoding through rehearsal; encoding is the processing of information  into the memory system (extracting meaning); slightly better for  random digits than for random letters (letters have similar sounds);  slightly better for what we hear than what we see; children and adults  have recall for roughly as many words as they can speak in 2 seconds long term memory o finally where memories end up for later retrieval; capacity essentially  limitless (not like attics, we can store more without discarding old ones) ENCODING: GETTING INFORMATION IN spacing effect o the phenomenon that proves we retain information better when  rehearsal is distributed over time (longer the space between practice  sessions of foreign languages the better the retention 5 years later);  spaced study beats cramming serial position effect
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o if you learn things one after another, you spend more time rehearsing  the earlier ones so the next day you recall the earlier information better  (learning the first few may also interfere with the later ones); as people  try to remember a list, they usually remember the first and last, but  forget the middle stuff perhaps because last terms are still in working memory  (recency effect) but after a delay (attention shifted elsewhere than last items)  recall is best for the first items (primacy effect) ENCODING STRATEGIES mnemonic o
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