CHAPTER 7 - CHAPTER 7 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PAVLOV'S...

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CHAPTER 7 05/03/2008 17:17:00 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PAVLOV’S EXPERIMENT UR o the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned  stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth (fidgety when a  gun appears) US o a stimulus that unconditionally – naturally and automatic – triggers a  response (loud noise of a gun going off) CR o the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned)  stimulus (salivation in response to the tone); (putting fingers to ear  before gun goes off) CS o an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an  unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response  (previous irrelevant tone stimulus) (seeing the gun) o just remember that conditioned= learned; UNconditioned= UNlearned extinction o the diminished responding that occurs when the CS (tone) no longer  signals an impending US (food); occurs in operant conditioning when a  response is no longer reinforced; Pavlov found this by sounding the  tone again and again w/out food following the dogs salivated less and  less spontaneous recovery o the reappearance of a weakened CR after a pause (suggested to  Pavlov that extinction was suppressing the CR rather than eliminating  it); he found that after his extinction experiment, if he allowed several  hours to pass before sounding the tone again, the salivation would  reappear spontaneously generalization o tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS; Pavlov found that  dogs conditioned to one tone responded somewhat to the sound of  another tone that had not been paired with food o can be adaptive (toddlers group motorcycles and big trucks with cars  and know when not to cross the street)
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o stimuli that are similar to naturally disgusting or appealing objects will  by association evoke some disgusting or liking (fudge that looks like  dog shit or adults with baby-like features we think they are warm,  submissive and naieve) discrimination o the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus (which  predicts the US) and other irrelevant stimuli (when Pavlov’s dogs  responded to the sound of one tone and not to others); this adaptive  because slightly different stimuli can be followed by greatly different  consequences EXTENDING PAVLOV’S UNDERSTANDING do cognitive processes and biological constraints affect classical  conditioning? o
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CHAPTER 7 - CHAPTER 7 CLASSICAL CONDITIONING PAVLOV'S...

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