SS2800 Ch 5 Lecture Summary.pdf - SS2800 Lecture Summary...

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Unformatted text preview: SS2800 Lecture Summary Chapter 5: Socializa8on Slide 1 Hello, and welcome to chapter five on the process of socializa7on. In this chapter, we will explore the following objec7ves: -­‐how social interac7on becomes the founda7on of personality -­‐six major theories of socializa7on -­‐how family, school, peers, and the media guide the process of socializa7on -­‐stages of life -­‐and, finally, social ins7tu7ons One key concept to note before we get started. While the process of socializa7on may some7mes in-­‐ volve the act of socializing, or interac7ng with others socially, the two are very different things. Students oGen confuse the act of socializing with the process of socializa7on. Socializing is an act we perform in our day-­‐to-­‐day lives as we encounter others. The process of socializa7on is a lifelong process over which we may have liIle control. It begins the day we are born and ends the day we die. Let’s look at the text-­‐ book defini7on. Slide 2 According to Macionis, socializa7on is the “lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human poten7al and learn culture.” This serves as the basis for our personality, or our “paIerns of thinking, feeling, and ac7ng built through internaliza7on” of our experiences with the social world. There is an ongoing debate over the role of nature (elements of society that naturally occur) and nurture (what we learn through the process of socializa7on). While research demonstrates that both have an effect, the study of sociology operates form the assump7on that nurture maIers more. Slide 3 Part of the reason that sociologists argue that nurture maIers more come from examples like Harlow’s experiments of isola7on on non-­‐human primates, resul7ng in irreversible emo7onal and behavioral damage. Similarly, when we look at research on children who were raised in isola7on, we see similar results. AGer intensive treatment, the ability of the child to func7on in the social world was largely con-­‐ 7ngent upon their level of mental func7oning and age at the 7me they were rescued. Slide 4 Let’s now look at Freud’s elements of personality. With personality, we are talking about two opposed forces (eros or life, and thanatos or death) that serve as the base line for basic human needs and behav-­‐ ior. The id is the most basic level, and includes our most basic drives. The ego is our effort to achieve balance between the two, and the superego is the opera7on of culture (or the effect of socializa7on) within the individual. Freud’s work has been cri7cized for framing concepts in male terms and devaluing women. His theories are also difficult to test scien7fically. Slide 5 As we move on to Piaget and cogni7ve development, we shiG toward focusing more on how people think and understand. Piaget proposed four stages of development: sensorimotor, preopera7onal, con-­‐ crete opera7onal, and formal opera7onal. Unlike Freud, Piaget saw the mind as ac7ve and crea7ve and argued that biological maturity and social experience largely shaped how we engaged with the world. Some argue, though, that Piaget’s stages are not universal and may not fit all contexts or cultures. Slide 6 From Piaget, we move to Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, which was built upon Piaget’s work on moral reasoning, or how individuals judge situa7ons as right or wrong. Kohlberg proposed develop-­‐ mental stages of moral development: preconven7onal, conven7onal, and postconven7onal. As we look at Kohlberg’s work, it is important to understand that his work was limited to boys and generalized to the popula7on, overall. So, similar to Freud, there may be some sex and gender bias. Slide 7 Gilligan looked at gender and moral development and the way that sex and gender could predict stan-­‐ dards of right and wrong. Gilligan argued that boys developed a jus7ce perspec7ve, while girls devel-­‐ oped a care-­‐and-­‐responsibility perspec7ve. It is important to note that cultural condi7oning, or the process of socializa7on, accounts for these differences. Slide 8 Let’s move on to Mead and the social self, or social behaviorism, which explains how social experience develops an individual’s personality. Mead argued that by taking the role of the other through imita7on, play, and games, we develop personality. This is where we first encounter the concept of the “looking glass self,” coined by Cooley. Basically, we reflect the self we think others see. Mead’s theories are root-­‐ ed in the symbolic interac7on perspec7ve. Slide 9 Erickson focused more heavily on stages, which have both a biological and social component. These stages are: -­‐infancy, during which we build trust -­‐toddlerhood, during which we develop autonomy -­‐preschool, during which we develop ini7a7ve -­‐preadolescence, during which we develop industriousness -­‐adolescence, during which we seek and further develop iden7ty -­‐young adulthood, during which we seek and develop emo7onally and physically in7mate rela-­‐ 7onships -­‐middle adulthood, during which we are torn between self and society -­‐old age, during which we are torn between integrity and despair When we cri7cally evaluate Erickson’s stages, it is important to keep in mind that not everyone confronts these challenges in the same order and Erickson’s defini7on of a successful life may not be universal. Slide 10 Let’s move on to the agents of socializa7on, with the first, and arguably most important being the family. As we are socialized in our families, regardless of how those families are comprised, we learn skills, val-­‐ ues, and beliefs. Arguably, we can also learn what not to value or believe. Family does, however, form the basis for our social iden7ty, including race or ethnicity and social posi7on. The family has a primary role in the process of socializa7on largely because we are with families through the most forma7ve stages of early development and largely isolated from the rest of society un7l we become old enough to spend significant 7me away from families in school or peer groups. Slide 11 In school, students are socialized in various ways, including: diversity, hidden curriculum (those underly-­‐ ing cultural assump7ons and norms that keep the masses in line), gender socializa7on, and the accumu-­‐ la7on of cultural capital. Slide 12 The next agent of socializa7on is the mass media, which may include books, music, television, the web, etc. Much research has been done on the consump7on of mass media, par7cularly television, and pos-­‐ sible adverse effects. More commonly, individuals are accessing the media online, including media that was previously restricted to television. While most researchers argue that there are no direct effects, there is good evidence to suggest that the media we consume may shape our poli7cs and our a\tudes toward violence. Slide 13 As we consider the process of socializa7on overall, it is important to remember that each stage of life is not only linked to social processes, but biological processes as well. These stages present problems and transi7ons. Demographic characteris7cs, such as race and/or ethnicity, sex, gender, sexuality, gender iden7ty, and socioeconomic class may significantly influence the process of socializa7on, our lived expe-­‐ riences, our life chances, and the ways in which we interact with and interpret our social world. The life course includes childhood (which is a rela7vely new concept, historically speaking), adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and old age. We also need to remember that dying is part of the life course. Elisabeth Kubler-­‐Ross proposed the stages of dying that you may be familiar with from other classes: denial, anger, nego7a7on, resigna7on, and acceptance. This concludes our study of chapter five. ...
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  • Summer '16
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