SS2800 Ch 7 Lecture Summary.pdf - SS2800 Lecture Summary...

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Unformatted text preview: SS2800 Lecture Summary Chapter 7: Groups and Organiza=ons Slide 1 Hello, and welcome to chapter seven on groups and organiza7ons. In this chapter, we will look at the importance of groups in our social lives; the opera7on of large, formal organiza7ons and the changes they have gone through in the last century; as well as the consequence of modern social organiza7on. Slide 2 According to Macionis, a social group is “two or more people who iden7fy and interact with one another.” Typically, we see the func7ons of real group dynamics when a group spreads beyond three people. The groups we are a part of may be large or small and can be formed for a variety of reasons. Slide 3 A primary group is small and based on personal and primary rela7onships that involve emo7onal and or financial assistance. This group is oFen comprised of family and close friends or significant others. A secondary group has large membership and is oFen comprised of people we have shorter and less emo7onal 7es with, oFen co-­‐workers and other professional affilia7ons fall in this category. Slide 4 Not all collec7ons of people cons7tute a group. One example is a crowd, or a temporary cluster of people. Slide 5 Groups also involve leadership, and there are two primary roles of leaders and three primary styles of leadership. Instrumental roles of leaders focus on tasks or goals, and expressive roles focus on collec7ve well-­‐being. Authoritarian leaders focus on instrumental concerns, take charge, and demand strict compliance. Democra7c leaders are more expressive and try to include everyone in the decision-­‐making process. Laissez-­‐faire leaders allow groups to func7on more or less on their own. Slide 6 Let’s move on to group conformity. Research in the 1950’s by Asch showed that may of us are willing to conform to the group and compromise our own judgment to avoid being different from others. Milgram’s research in the 1960’s backed up that hypothesis by showing that authority figures, or those who are perceived to be in authority, can also make us conform to group expecta7ons that go against our individual natures. Janis built upon this to develop the term groupthink, or the “tendency of group members to conform by adop7ng a narrow view of some issue.” Slide 7 While studies on conformity help us beZer understand how groups func7on, it is important to also understand some of the different types of groups. A reference group is a “social group that serves as a point of reference for people making evalua7ons or decisions.” In-­‐groups are social groups “commanding a member’s esteem and loyalty,” while an out-­‐group “is a social group toward which one feels compe77on or opposi7on. As we men7oned before, dyads and triads are special kinds of very small groups with specific dynamics. Slide 8 Race, socioeconomic class, sex and/or gender, and a variety of other characteris7cs may have a significant impact on intergroup contact. Larger groups lead to the greater likelihood that members will interact more among themselves, while groups that are very different will turn more to out-­‐groups. Networks, or “webs of weak social 7es” may be created out of this intergroup interac7on. Slide 9 Let’s change gears and take a look at formal organiza7ons. There are three primary types: u7litarian, norma7ve, and coercive. Formal organiza7ons have been around for thousands of years and the earliest organiza7ons were limited by technology and cultural norms and societal structure. Slide 10 Weber’s work on bureaucra7c organiza7ons is important to the study of sociology. Weber argued that ideal bureaucra7c organiza7ons, which are designed to perform tasks efficiently, have the following characteris7cs: specializa7on, hierarchy, rules and regula7ons, technical competence, impersonality, and formal/wriZen communica7ons. Slide 11 Weber posited that economic and poli7cal trends, popula7on paZerns, current events, and other organiza7ons might have posi7ve or nega7ve effects on organiza7ons. Addi7onally, members aZempts to personalize a bureaucracy may weaken the impersonality of the ins7tu7on. Some of the problems of bureaucracies include: aliena7on, inefficiency and ritualism, and iner7a. Slide 12 Michels linked bureaucracy and oligarchy, or “the rule of the many by the few,” which serves as a threat to democracy as those who are in power and control use their resources for personal gain. Slide 13 As formal organiza7ons evolved, the theory of scien7fic management developed. This is the “applica7on of scien7fic principals to the opera7on of a business or other large organiza7on.” It involves managers observing workers’ tasks, data analysis to look for ways to become more efficient, and guidance and incen7ves to encourage greater worker efficiency. Slide 14 As formal organiza7ons shiF and change, the informa7on age has a profound opportunity to shape what they become, leading to more crea7ve freedom, compe77ve work teams, flaZer organiza7onal hierarchies, and greater flexibility. The future of organiza7ons may also include what some sociologists refer to as the “McDonaldiza7on of Society” which is marked by efficiency, predictability, uniformity, and control. Organiza7ons are moving toward more crea7ve freedom for more skilled workers and less freedom for less skilled workers. This concludes our study of chapter seven. ...
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  • Summer '16

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