Ch05.ppt - Chapter Five Anxiety Disorders and...

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Chapter Five Anxiety Disorders and Obsessive- Compulsive Spectrum Disorders
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Understanding Anxiety Disorders Anxiety: A feeling of uneasiness or apprehension; a fundamental human emotion Anxiety disorders: Fear or anxiety symptoms that interfere with an individual’s day-to-day functioning Anxiety is anticipatory: waiting for a dreaded event to occur Fear is a most intense emotion experienced in response to a threatening situation
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Understanding Anxiety Disorders (cont’d.) Panic attacks: Intense fear accompanied by pounding heart, trembling, shortness of breath, fear of losing control, and fear of dying Panic attacks may be experienced without an anxiety disorder
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Understanding Anxiety Disorders (cont’d.) Figure 5-1 Prevalence of Anxiety Disorders in the United States Anxiety disorders are the most common mental conditions in the United States.
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Understanding Anxiety Disorders (cont’d.) Four anxiety disorders covered in this chapter: Phobias Panic disorder Agorophobia Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) Obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders also discussed due to similarities with anxiety disorders
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Understanding Disorders from Multipath Perspective Figure 5-2 Multipath Model of Anxiety Disorders The dimensions interact with one another and combine in different ways to result in a specific anxiety disorder. The importance and influence of each dimension varies from individual to individual.
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Biological Dimension Two main biological factors: Brain function Amygdala Hippocampus Prefrontal cortex Genetic influences Modest contribution to anxiety disorders Interact with other multipath factors
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Biological Dimension (cont’d.) Figure 5-3 Neuroanatomical Basis for Panic and Other Anxiety Disorders The fear network in the brain is centered in the amygdala and interacts with the hippocampus and areas of the prefrontal cortex. Antianxiety medications appear to desensitize the fear network. Some psychotherapies also affect brain functioning related to anxiety.
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Biological Dimension (cont’d.) Biological, psychological, and social factors interact with one another Interplay between genetic and environmental influences Environmental variables affect gene expression
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Psychological Dimension Cognitive-behavioral theories focus on cognitive processes (negative, catastrophic, or irrational thoughts) Anxiety sensitivity (a personality variable) may be a risk factor Psychological variables such as one’s sense of control may also be involved
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Social and Sociocultural Dimensions Daily environmental stress Traumatic events Social support network Gender Acculturation factors among minority groups Discrimination and prejudice
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Phobias Phobia: Strong, persistent, unwarranted fear of a specific object or situation Extreme anxiety or panic is expressed when phobic stimulus is encountered Most common mental disorder in United States Comes from Greek word for fear
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Phobias (cont’d.)
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  • Summer '16
  • Social anxiety disorder

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