SS2800 Ch 6 Lecture Summary.pdf - SS2800 Lecture Summary...

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Unformatted text preview: SS2800 Lecture Summary Chapter 6: Social Interac9on in Everyday Life Slide 1 Hello, and welcome to chapter six on social interac4on. In this chapter, we will focus on how we can make sense of the social world through social structure; statuses, roles and social organiza4on; and the social construc4on of reality. Slide 2 According to Macionis, social interac4on is the process by which people act and react in rela4on to oth-­‐ ers. We make sense of everyday situa4ons by following the social structure that we are socialized in. Part of this structure includes status, which is a “social posi4on that an individual occupies” and may be ascribed, achieved, or master. An ascribed status is one that others confer onto us, or we are born with. An achieved status is one that we earn through work (some4mes the lack thereof) or merit. A master status has special importance because it may shape a person’s en4re life in a number of ways. OKen, race and/or ethnicity, sex, gender, sexuality (or sexual orienta4on), gender iden4ty, ability, and socioeco-­‐ nomic class are considered master statuses. Slide 3 A role is a behavior expected of someone who holds a par4cular status and the roles linked to each sta-­‐ tus define what we do. Some4mes, our roles are in conflict because of another status we hold. We might also experience role strain when roles linked to a single status conflict. Role exit is the “process by which people disengage from important social roles.” Slide 4 Let’s move on to the social construc4on of reality. According to Macionis, this is the “process by which individuals crea4vely shape reality through social interac4on.” So, what does that mean? Basically, it means that we ac4vely create our social world through par4cipa4on in it. When we talk about “common sense,” that is an example of construc4ng reality since common sense is culture bound. There is no uni-­‐ versal common sense—it is con4ngent upon culture and how one is socialized within that culture and the subcultures within it. In short, common sense is not common at all. As we explore social construc-­‐ 4on of reality, we also need to know the Thomas Theorem, which states that “situa4ons that are defined as real become real in their consequences.” So, whether or not something is real, if people act as if it is, there will be real consequences that stem from that. We know all of this through ethnomethodology, or the “study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings.” Keep in mind, the reality that we experience, and thus how we act, is shaped by our culture and our interests. Culture is not only the demographic categories we fit into, but our na4onality, the country we live in, the region of the country we live in, our food, arts, music, technology, language, etc. Slide 5 Let’s move on to Goffman’s work. Goffman studied social interac4on by applying a theater analogy, ar-­‐ guing that we present ourselves in a way that is intended to create specific impressions in the minds of those we interact with. Performance of a par4cular role includes a stage se[ng (so physical and social loca4on—meaning not only the actual place but the surrounding circumstances and influencing demo-­‐ graphic characteris4cs that are part of the interac4on), “props” (or the way we dress, speak, use non-­‐ verbal behaviors, etc.), and front and backstage behavior. As an example, a teenager who goes out par-­‐ tying on a Friday night might tell the real story to his or her friends, while sharing a less detailed version with his or her parents. In the role of friend, they present themselves one way, and in the role of son or daughter, they may present themselves in another way. Slide 6 Nonverbal communica4on is important and some4mes overlooked in interac4on and includes every-­‐ thing other than our actual use of language, either through speech, sign, or wri^en language. This may include the actual words used, our tone/pitch/volume of voice, body language, facial expressions, de-­‐ meanor, and use of personal space. Depending on the culture and subcultural groups we are a part of, norms for nonverbal communica4on may vary greatly. Even within the same geographic area, subcultur-­‐ al groups and iden44es may lead to diverse socializa4on when it comes to nonverbal communica4on. That may be one of the reasons that nonverbal communica4on is oKen analyzed in instances of alleged decep4on. While there are no hard and fast rules to determine if someone is lying, nonverbal communi-­‐ ca4on that doesn’t match verbal communica4on or involuntary nonverbal cues (lack of eye contact, etc.) may alert us to decep4on. Slide 7 While we are socialized to perform some nonverbal behaviors and refrain from others according to our gender iden4ty, gender is also central to our role performance in other ways. Keep in mind that gender is about masculine and feminine behavior—it is the social expression of sex (which is typically male or female). Addi4onally, idealiza4on of our roles or selves may influence our role performance, as might embarrassment and tact following a role performance failure. Slide 8 Let’s move on to emo4ons or feelings, some of which are innate, or feelings that are universal that we are born with, these include: happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise. Culture determines what may trigger emo4on. Slide 9 Another way in which social construc4on influences our everyday lives is through the gendered use of language, which is used to communicate power, value, and a^en4on through language in differen4al ways for men and women. Slide 10 Finally, we can learn a lot about the social construc4on of reality through the study of humor. Humor tends to arise from viola4ons of cultural norms and is created when people create and construct differ-­‐ ent reali4es. Humor is oKen very culturally bound and what goes over well in one culture may not be considered humorous in another. Overall, humor helps us reduces stress, serving as a safety valve for expression of opinions. However, humor can foster conflict and it is important to consider cultural com-­‐ petencies and the se[ng when a^emp4ng humor. This concludes our study of chapter six. ...
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  • Summer '16

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