Carbohydrate Digestion1

Carbohydrate Digestion1 - Salivary Gland Carbohydrate...

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Carbohydrate Digestion Salivary Gland in Nonruminants Mouth Stomach Small Intestine Pancreas Large Intestine
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Large Intestine Carbohydrate Digestion in Ruminant Small Intestine Pancreas Rumen-Reticulum
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    Sites of  Carbohydrate Digestion Mouth Salivary amylase begins  digestion of starch True  Stomach HCl ruptures starch  granules
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    Sites of Carbohydrate Digestion Small Intestine Amylase From the pancreas; primary enzyme digesting starch Maltase (brush border enzyme) Sucrase (brush border enzyme) (not found in ruminants) Lactase (brush border enzyme)
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    Carbohydrate Digestion  By Mammalian Enzymes Substrate Enzyme Product starch amylase > dextrins dextrins amylase > maltose + maltotriose   +  α -limit dextrins maltose maltase > glucose + glucose lactose lactase > glucose + galactose sucrose sucrase > glucose + fructose
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    Sites of Carbohydrate Digestion Rumen-Reticulum/Large Intestine Bacteria and protozoa ferment carbohydrates and  produce the VFA For Example : Substrate Enzyme Product cellulose cellulase > cellobiose –  (2 glucose  linked by  β  1-4 bonds) cellobiose cellulase  > glucose glucose lots > VFA –  see page 17
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    Absorption of  Monosaccharides Absorbed only in the small intestine Absorption requires carrier molecules  and energy, so it is termed active  transport
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    Volatile Fatty Acid  Formation from Glucose Acetic acid Glucose C 6 H 12 O 6 2 acetate + CO 2  + CH 4  + Heat (2) C 2 H 4 O 2 Propionic acid Glucose + electrons 2 propionate + H 2 O (2) C 3 H 6 O 2 Butyrate + CO 2  + CH 4 Butyric acid C 6 H 12 O 6 C 6 H 12 O 6 C 4 H 8 O 2 Glucose
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    Efficiencies of Volatile  Fatty Acid Formation *   Volatile    Fatty Acid   Moles  Derived / Mole  Glucose  Gross  Energy  (kcal/   mole)  Total Usable  Energy  derived/ Mole  Glucose (kcal)    Efficiency of  Conversion †  %   Acetic    209.4  418.8    61.0  Propionic    367.2  734.4    107.1  Butyric    524.3  524.3    76.4  *
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course BIOL biol 112 taught by Professor Vaughun during the Spring '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Carbohydrate Digestion1 - Salivary Gland Carbohydrate...

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