grudic_causes_of_the_spanish_civil_war (1).pptx - Causes of...

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Causes of the Spanish Civil War 1936-1939
The Causes of the WarProfound cause: long period of decline since the great days of he Spanish EmpireSpain had made little progress, lost her empire, and fallen behind in the industrialization processDeep division in Spanish societyLandowners vs. Peasants
The Spanish Civil WarObjectives:The Nationalists sought to preserve Spain’s integrity, while Republicans wished to preserve the Second Republic
Overview: History of political instability and regional differencesRise of a militant left intensified divisions / army and church resisted the change – growing unrest and extremismDictatorship of Primo de Rivera failed to solve the issues/ he was replaced by a republic in 1931 (Second Spanish Republic)By 1930s – deep divisions between left and rightCivil War- fought by different groups within the same country – often very bitter, and long-lasting effects/ resulting in divided communitiesSpanish Civil War (1936-39) a result of an attempted military coup on the Second Spanish RepublicThe creation of the leftist coalition of the Popular Frontand a murder of a right-wing politician (Sotelo) provoked ad military coup in 1936;Military leaders started revolt in Spanish Morocco – then entered mainland
Main Long Term Causes Divisions in Spanish History 1803-1936 – 19 military coups, and 3 civil wars between 1833 and 76Conflicting beliefs:Profound traditional Catholicism against more liberal groupsRegional independence against traditional central controlPolitical liberalism against deep, conservative monarchism Economic and social divisionsCenters of industrial development in the economically dynamic north (Barcelona, Madrid, Bilbao) created a new urban proletariat and new industrial elitesHowever, the rest of the country was dependent on a feudalistic agricultural system where the peasants in the south lived under miserable conditions as they worked on the vast private estates of the rich, on the verge of starvation.PoliticalRegional/social/economical divisions led to deep social tensions and divided the country into to opposing sides. 1) Rich landlords/ industrial elite, Army, Church and Monarchists supported the conservatives and fascists. 2) Poor, republicans, reformers, proletariat, peasantry and minorities supported socialists and anarchists.
Divisions (continued)The Rise of the LefFor a long time no labor movement – most of Spain agricultural, traditional, religious Anarchism

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