chapter 7 - Physiological Approaches to Personality.docx -...

This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 10 pages.

PSY 352: Personality PsychologyLecture Outline #7: Physiological Approaches to Personalityphysiology: study of the physical functioning of body’s organ systemsEverything psychological is simultaneously biological.digit ratio:low 2D:4D ratio:high 2D:4D ratio:Studying Physiology & Personalitybrain damage cases: StrokesPhineas Gage4 types of physiological measures:1.Electrodermal activitySweat gland activity in skinControlled by autonomic nervous system (Fight or Flight)Electrodes on hands: one sends current, other detects itMore sweat (electrodermal activity) = more conductance.Increases from surprise, emotional pictures, mental effort, pain, anxiety, fear, etc.Individual differences:Resting electrodermal activitypositively correlated with neuroticism, anxiety.
2.Cardiovascular activity ( heart & blood vessels)Blood pressureAutonomic activity –> larger strokes of heart, narrowed blood vesselsHeart rate (BPM)Autonomic activity -> faster rateStress, anxiety, cognitive effort, etc. -> blood pressure & BPM increasescardiac reactivity: Bigger increases for some people than othersHigh reactivity -> Type A Personality -> higher risk of heart disease3. NeuroimagingElectroencephalography (EEG): Electrodes record electrical activity generated by brain (looks for changes).Positron emission tomography (PET): uses radioactive glucose to track energy consumption in the brain.Active neurons need more glucose.Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI): detects increases in BLOODFLOW throughout the brain.Increased blood flow -> oxygen delivery -> parts of brain working hardest.NEUROIMAGING & PERSONALITY EXAMPLECanli et al. (2001): FMRI while people view positive/negative images.Frontal lobe activity to positive images: positively correlated with extraversion.Frontal lobe activity to negative images: positively correlated with neuroticism.Types of physiological Measure:Other physiological measures:Immune system functioning (antibodies)HormonesTestosterone & aggressionCortisol (stress hormone)Levels of neurotransmitters
applications of neuroimaging:4.Physiological Personality Theories: Extraversion-Introversionascending reticular activating system (ARAS):Remember Eysenck’s taxonomy? (Psychoticism, extraversion, neuroticism)Extraversion/introversion a function of activity in ASCENDING RETICULAR ACTIVTING SYSTEM (ARAS)?ARAS: brainstem structure (part of reticular formation) that controls arousal in higher parts of brain.Eysenck’s 1960s idea: ARAS like a gateClosed gate -> lower resting arousal level (extraverts?)Underarousal -> need more stimulation to reach optimal level?

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture