Homework Asignment 3.docx - 1 As weve learned in this...

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1. As we’ve learned in this chapter, Freud’s writings have exerted an enormous impact on popular culture, although many modern psychologists have questioned their scientific basis. What is “personality”? What elements make up someone’s personality? Describe the core assumptions of Psychoanalytic Theory. Describe key criticisms of Psychoanalytic Theory and the central features of Neo-Freudian Theories. Personality is a distinctive and relatively stable, attitude, behavior, thoughts, motives and emotions that characterizes an individual. Personality consists of traits. A trait is a characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, or feeling. Freud was the first person who discovered that there were different personalities that exist within cultures and society. Freud said that we use different features to describe a personality. A person can be shy, ambitious, outgoing, lazy, easy-going, confident, anal. Psychodynamic theories are theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual. Freud’s psychoanalytic theory rests three core assumptions: psychic determinism, unconscious motivation and symbolic meaning. Based on what Freud said, personality results from the interactions among id, ego and superego. The ego copes with thread by deploying defense mechanisms. Freud’s five psychosexual stages are oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Freudians believe in psychic determinism which is the assumption that all psychological events have a cause. The id according to Freud is the reservoir of our primitive impulses( like sex and aggression), whereas the ego is the psyche’s exercutive and principal decision maker. Freud hypothesized that psychological distress comes from conflicts among the id, ego and, superego. Freud belived that the ego keeps the psychological health by engaging in defense mechanisms, unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety. Oral: birth to 12-18 months. Anal: 18 month to 3 years. Phallic: 3-6 years. Latency: 6-12 years. Genital: 12 years and beyond. The conflict during Freud’s phallic stage in which children supposedly love their opposite sex parents romantically and want to eliminate their same sex parents as rivals is termed the Oedipus Complex. Psychoanalytic theory has been criticized for unfalsiability, failed predictions, questionable conception of unconscious, lack of evidence, and a flawed assumption of shared environmental influence. Neo-Freudians shared with Freud an
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