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Psychology_Notes_Exam_2 - PSY 101 Notes Exam 2 Radical...

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PSY 101 Notes Exam 2 9-28-06 Radical Behavior Tolman (1932) Problems w/ Behaviorism Noam Chomsky (1928…); proved Skinner wrong saying that “Not only is Skinner wrong, but a behaviorist explanation cannot, in principle, ever account for language.” What limits real-world performance? Strategic Air Command Center, Nebraska ca 1948 Thomas Kuhn (1962) - “the transition from a paradigm in arises to a new one is a reconstruction of the field…” Information Processing Paradigm reorganization Sensation and Perception How do we receive information from the external world and attach meaning to that information? a.) Distal stimulus (the “real” object) b.) Proximal Stimulus c.) Perception 1
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Transduction – conversion of physical signal into neural signal Sensation – process of receiving physical energy from the external world Necessary for perception but not sufficient Visual Agnosias – impairments in the ability to interpret (but not see) visual information - Prosopagnosia Five “Special” Senses Light Waves…………Vision Sound Waves ………Hearing Odor Molecules …….Smell Food Molecules……..Taste Pressure……………..Touch Other Sensory Systems - Kinesthesis; info that comes from receptors in the muscles, tendons, and joints, and that informs us about our movements and the orientation of our body in space - Vestibular; Receptors are in cavity w/in inner ear (cochlea) and signal movements of head - Skin Senses (touch); at least four different skin receptors given rise to sensations of pressure, warmth, cold, and pain o Heat o Cold o Light Touch o Heavy Touch Detection and Decision Psychophysics Study of relationship between properties of the physical stimulus and the sensory experience the stimulus ultimately gives rise to. (p.117) Goal of Psychophysics – to chart relationships between physical characteristics of stimulus and individuals perceptions of that stimulus SIGNAL DETECTION DIAGRAM p. 173 Basic approach is to present targets on some trails but not for others Table 5.2 Measuring sensory intensity Absolute Threshold – minimum energy necessary to detect a stimulus Below Threshold or Near Threshold Input; brief flash of positive, negative, or neutral image; (Photo Presented for attractiveness voting) 2 stimulus present absent yes hit false alarm no miss correct negative
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Sensory Perception Hearing – The stimulus for hearing – The air pressure produced by sound wave, changes from movement to movement Figure 5.3 p. 177 Wavelength (frequency) – how many peaks in a second Physical vs. Psychological Dimensions - Amplitude Loudness; Decibels, measured in - Frequency Pitch; Hertz, measured in o For each increase of 10 decibels, “loudness” doubles o Pitch is not characteristic of sound wave but the psychological dimension of hearing Presbycusis – (older adults) impairments in detection of higher pitched sounds; high frequencies From Sound Waves to Hearing Anatomy of ear diagram 5.6 Parts of the ear: - Outer Ear; collection of sound - Auditory Canal - Eardrum - Ossicles p. 181 - Oval Window - Round Window -
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