Overview_of_rainfed_Agriculture.docx - Overview of rainfed Agriculture The share of agriculture in the Gross Domestic Product(GDP has registered a

Overview_of_rainfed_Agriculture.docx - Overview of rainfed...

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Unformatted text preview: Overview of rainfed Agriculture: The share of agriculture in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has registered a steady decline from 36.4 per cent in 1982-83 to 14.1 per cent in 2011- 2012. Indian agriculture dominated by rainfed agriculture accounts 68 per cent of the total net sown area (136.8 million hectare) spread over 177 districts. Dry land crops account for 48 per cent area under food crops and 68 per cent area under non-food crops. The green revolution started in the 1960s, following the introduction of high yielding variety (HYV) technology based on water-seed-fertilizer strategy, and the associated land- and crop-based subsidized formal credit facilities generated a strong impression that agriculture is a relatively profitable source of income. These strategies have led the negative effects on the development of dry land regions causing shift of land away from dry crops in favour of irrigated crops. This has led the huge shift in cropping patterns from food crops to non food crops during the first green revolution. Issues with Rainfed Agriculture: India is a country of diverse agro-ecosystems and cropping preferences. It is predominantly rainfed (~60%) and size of the farm holdings are rather small (~67%).They cover a large area of India – 62 per cent of the geographical area and 68 per cent of the gross cropped area; which includes 42 per cent of the area of major crops like rice, 77 per cent of the area for pulses, 66 per cent for oilseeds, and 85 per cent of coarse cereals . Rainfed crops account for 48 per cent of the total area under food crops and 68 per cent under non-food crops Ecologically, rainfed areas are the most fragile. One-third of the dryland areas are highly degraded, which cannot be put under cultivation. They receive rainfall of either less than 500 mm or more than 1,500 mm and suffer from serious water management problems either way. Rainfed areas also suffer from droughts once every three years. Western Rajasthan, eastern Rajasthan, Gujarat, western Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Kashmir and Andhra Pradesh are most vulnerable to droughts. The moderate growth in productivity levels couldnt compensate for production losses due to shrinking area. In case of millets, the productivity enhancement for rainfed areas was 0.29 per cent, whereas the area in rainfed region reduced by 2.17 per cent resulting in overall decline in production from rainfed regions by about 2 per cent. In use of oilseeds, though there is a decline (0.56 per cent) in production at national level, productivity enhancement (0.75 per cent) and increase in oilseed area (3.10 per cent) under rainfed conditions resulted in increase in production (3.87 per cent) from rainfed areas. A comparison of the production growth rates for 1980-90 and 1990-2003 indicate lower growth rates during 1990-2003 in case of coarse grains (1.91 per cent and 1.47 per cent) and millets (3.31 per cent and 0.29 per cent) and marginally higher growth rates for pulses (0.32 per cent and 0.39 per cent) and oil seeds (0.70 per cent and 0.75 per cent) (down to earth 2007) Rainfed varieties and adoptability: Seed is one of the most important determinants of crop success or failure. An important aspect of the traditional systems was that highly localized systems of seed adaptation were encouraged rather than looking for few, uniform varieties across different locations. Much of the diversity bred over the centuries, in contrast, is a reflection of local adaptation depending on the agro-ecological niches, cultural specificities, and available resources with a farming community etc. Seed preferences and choices were also dependent on different kinds of cuisines that communities had. . In contrast today’s modern seed industry is centralized, specialized and concentrated systems of seed production and supply based on a handful of varieties and crops, also regulated in a centralized fashion. Crop shifts due to change in government policies: Crop diversification in India is generally viewed as a shift from traditionally grown less remunerative crops to more remunerative crops . There The crop shift (diversification) also takes place due to governmental policies and thrust on some crops over a given time, for example Creation of the Technology Mission on Oilseeds (TMO) to give thrust on oil seeds production as a national need for the country's requirement for less dependency on imports. Market infrastructure development and certain other price related supports also induce crop shift. Often low volume high-value crops like spices also aid in crop diversification. Higher profitability and also the resilience/stability in production also induce crop diversification, for example sugar cane replacing rice and wheat. This crop substitution occurring even in the areas with distinct soil problems. Such example is Crop diversification and also the growing of large number of crops are practiced in rain fed lands to reduce the risk factor of crop failures due to drought or less rains. Crop substitution and shift are also taking place in the areas with distinct soil problems. For example, promotion of soybean in place of sorghum in vertisols (medium and deep black soils). Post green revolution: The agriculture sector has been successful over the past five decades in keeping pace with the rising food demand of a growing population by increased food grain production by four folds since independence from 51 million tonnes (Mt) during 1950/51 to 203 Mt during 1998/99. Current agricultural research in India is highly biased toward irrigated crops such as wheat and rice. It has very little relevance to the problems of rain-fed agriculture and particularly those of smallholders, whose situation is almost totally neglected Change in cropping pattern: There has been an enormous shift in crops and cropping patterns in rainfed areas. Commercial crops like sunflower, soybean, and groundnuts have replaced the staple coarse cereals. Cotton is also replacing sorghum. Mixed cropping, which was universally practised in rainfed areas, is now limited to hot arid and humid regions, besides the tribal regions. With the popularisation of bore wells in the rainfed areas, rice and horticultural crops like fruits and vegetable have come up. Thus, in rainfed areas, ecological access to food has become acute. In fact, in the process the marketability of coarse cereals has become a problem. Even though the minimum support price (msp) exists for these crops, there is no attempt to procure them in many areas. "msp is hardly implemented in states. For coarse cereals it almost does'nt exist. This makes the market, and incentive for rainfed crops unsuitable," says Ramesh Chand of the National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research (see box MSP not helping rainfed areas) Cropping patterns change: Changes in cropping pattern is determined by factors like agro-climatic conditions, technological, infrastructural and institutional environment and profitability signals. The technological support and price support of mid sixties in favor of crops like wheat and rice at the cost of coarse cereals, millets ,pulses and oil seeds. Shifting patterns in India (m ha) Sl Table 1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Crop Rice Wheat Jowar Bajra Maize Other cereals Gram 1970-71 37.6 18.2 17.4 12.9 5.8 9.9 1980-81 40.1 22.3 15.8 11.7 6.0 8.3 1990-91 42.7 24.2 14.4 10.5 5.9 5.5 2000-01 44.7 25.7 9.9 9.8 6.6 3.3 2010-11 42.1 29.2 7.1 9.4 8.5 2.1 7.8 6.6 7.5 5.2 9.2 8 9 Tur Cotton 2.7 7.6 1980-81* 2.8 7.8 3.6 7.4 1990-91* % Gross Cropped Area 3.6 8.6 2000-2001** Gross Cropped area Paddy 1453.00 25.67 2418.40 49.57 4243.00 35.33 3978.00 35.51 Coarse cereals 1796.40 31.73 239.80 4.92 1514.00 12.61 1302.00 11.62 Wheat 4.10 0.07 0.50 0.01 11.00 0.09 10.00 0.09 Pulses 437.90 7.73 620.00 12.71 1902.00 15.84 1984.00 17.71 Oilseeds 990.90 17.50 740.90 15.19 2697.00 22.46 2235.00 19.95 Cotton 232.80 4.11 93.70 1.92 1022.00 8.51 972.00 8.68 Sugar cane 77.40 1.37 144.40 2.96 217.00 1.81 264.00 2.36 Tobacco 31.20 0.55 48.50 0.99 52.00 0.43 127.00 1.13 5.97 246.00 2.05 226.22 2.02 5.77 105.00 0.87 103.78 0.93 100.00 12009.00 100.00 11202.0 0 100.00 101.80 1.80 Other 535.80 9.46 281.40 Grand Total 5661.3 100.00 4878.90 Gross Cropped Area % 2006-07** Crop Fruit/spice/ vegetable/ % 4.4 11.1 Gross Cropped Area % 291.30 Souce: A.Vaidyanathan (2005) Report on the analysis of data of cost of cultivation surveys undertaken by the Indian Society of Agricultural Economics CULTURAL ECONOMICS * These are grown primarily in rain-fed areas of the south and central parts of the country. Apart from decline in area under cultivation of these cereals which are nutritionally rich, their production and yield have not only stagnated but have also declined due to lack of support. The shifts in cropping patterns towards water guzzling crops like paddy, wheat and sweet orange plantations in rainfed areas are one of the major consequences of decline in coarse cereals like sorghum, pearl millet, barly and small millets. Since 1980s under rice has increased by almost 6 million hectare, production has increased by 47 million tons, and yield has doubled. Among the cereals about 5.7 million hectares (m/ha) - has shifted from cereal crops to noncereal crops. While cereals and pulses have lost area, the major gainers of this area shift are the non-foodgrain crops especially oilseeds. The area under oilseeds has declined from 27.52million ha in 2004-05 to ………………………. In 2010-11. But within oil seeds there is improvement in area of mustard, rape seed, sunflower and soya bean and thers is short decline in area of groundnut area. Among commercial crops notable increase in area has seen in vegetables, sugarcane, tobacco, fruits and vegetables. Wheat: The major increase in the productivity of wheat has been observed in the states of Haryana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. The production of wheat in the country has increased significantly from 68.64 million tonnes in 2004-05 to an all-time high of 88.31 million tonnes in 2011-12 due to increase in premium price from Rs.640 per quintal in 2004-05 to Rs. 1285per quintal during 2011-12. Pulses: Among food grains the growth scenario is completely different for pulses as sown by the crop’s declining growth in output, area and yield, especially during 1990s. However during the last decade, there was appreciable acceleration in the growth of pulse production owing to both area and yield. Over a period the yield is not increased but entered into nontraditional areas. Later initiatives from the government programmes has led to increase in the area coverage under pulses from 22.76M Ha in 2004-05 to 25.43million ha in 2011-12. There is increase in productivity has observed in Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. Overall the total growth rate of area, production and yield of pulses increased significantly during 2000-01 to 2010-11. The results of the many government progarmmes has been a manifold increase in the area under highyielding variety (HYV) (as a percentage of total cropped area of the crop) from 1966/67 to 1998/99. From being almost negligible (in 1966/67) the area under HYV (in 1998/99) was 90 percent, 75 percent, and 60 percent for wheat, rice, and maize, respectively. However, maize performance has been dramatic in Indians and emerged as a third major food grain crop and the most important coarse cereal—it has risen from around only 6 percent of total food grain production in the 1980s and early 2010s to 8.5 percent.. The latest period (2000/01- 2008/09) has seen high growth in the maize cultivated area (above 3 percent per year) with stable yield from 1980 due to largely been driven by rising adoption of hybrid seed from the private sector demand for feedstock (due to rapid growth in the poultry sector), and other indirect effects from economic liberalization in the 1990s (Narayanan, Dalafi, and Gulati 2008). The expansion in area and production has been accompanied by a regional shift in cultivation to the southern states from the traditional Maize Belt (Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh) in the north (Narayanan, Dalafi,and Gulati 2008). Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka contribute 34 percent to total production against 37 percent from the Maize Belt in TE 2008/09. Also have higher yields (2.9 and 3.5 tons/hectare) compared to regional belts. However, Bihar’s yields are the highest among the traditional maize grower states, with around 2.3 tons/hectare, partly because 57 percent of the maize is irrigated with winter maize. Pulses: Among food grains the growth scenario is completely different for pulses as sown by the crop’s declining growth in output, area and yield, especially during 1990s. However during the last decade, there was appreciable acceleration in the growth of pulse production owing to both area and yield. Over a period the yield is not increased but entered into nontraditional areas. Indian seed sector: In general there were different growth stages for the development of national seed industries. The commonly described stages of development are (Kosarek et al., 1999). 1. 2. 3. 4. Pre industrial stage Emergence stage Expansion stage Maturity stage The stage where the commercialization of the agriculture occurs and hybrids dominating in high value crops and Where all the seed production Agriculture is largely commercial, with hybrids dominating in high valueSeed production is entirely in the private sector, and the private sector is increasingly the source of technical information for farmers. Quality control standards are strongly enforced, and plant variety protection is in place and effectively implemented. Corporations prevent seed savings through patents and by engineering seeds with non-renewable traits. As a result, poor peasants have to buy new seeds for every planting season and what was traditionally a free resource, available by putting aside a small portion of the crop, becomes a commodity. This new expense increases poverty and leads to indebtness. Indian farming is also changing the same way, with active support of Indian government. There seems to be lot of distortion, fudging and deliberate misinformation being spread by the seed companies, primarily to increase the anxiety among farmers and mint profits out of such anxiety. Unfortunately, government seems to be a ‘knowingly’ silent spectator. There are important milestones in the development of seed industry in India. Establishment of All India Coordinated Project on Sorghum Improvement – 1960 Establishment of National Seed Corporation – 1963 Establishment of Seed Companies – 1964 ( The crop area under high-yielding varieties (HYV) increased from 7% to 22% of the total cultivated area during the period of the Green Revolution Establishment of All India Coordinated Pearl-millet Improvement Project – 1965 New seed act- 1966 (voluntary certification and marketing of Truthfully Labelled Seed (TLS) Establishment of State Seed Corporation (SSC) , State Seed and Fertilizer Corporation (SSFC), State Agricultural University (SAU), All India Coordinated Crop Improvement Project (AICCIP), National Research Centers (NRC’S), National Seed Project (NSP), National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) – 1975-1995; New Policy on Seed Development –1988 (enabled the seed industry to import seed in bulk of exotic varieties and hybrids and market for first two years with no need to pass through the variety testing system, but with conditions that so introduced germplasm) National Seed Policy – 2002 The Seeds Bill – 2004 National Food Security Mission – 2007 The shift from saved seed to corporate monopoly of the seed supply also represents a shift from biodiversity to monoculture in agriculture. Farmer preferences: Public sector schemes for Farmers: To maintain the seed chain and quality seed production there were effort From the formal seed industry. Table provides a detailed overview of the agriculture sector’s performance in the production of breeder seed and foundation seeds. Production and distribution of seeds ( lakh quls) Year Breeder seed production Foundation seed production FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 0.665 0.687 0.738 0.920 1.000 1.05 6.90 7.40 7.96 8.22 9.69 10.5 Distribution of certified and quality seeds 113.10 126.74 155.01 179.05 190.00 257.11 FY11 1.19 17.53 277.30 Souce: Economic survey 2009-10 Directorate of economics and statistics From the above table shows that the supply of breeder seed is consistantly higher than the varieties released by the state and central governments. Recognizing the threats and opportunities facing the food grain sector, the Indian government has launched a set of policy initiatives under many schemes for providing subsidy for highvoulme low value crops and quality seeds. Unfortunately most of the initiatives of late are being heading towards destruction of local self-sufficiency and public sector seed systems. This became stronger with technology, legal frameworks and public support being favourable towards externalisation of seed and monopolisation of seed markets. Today most of the of the centrally sponsored schemes (like Rastriya Krishi Vikas Yojana, National Food Security Mission, various Technology Missions etc) are all geared up to subsidise the seed. Unlike the earlier days where public sector seeds were supplied under such schemes its private seeds which are supplied. i. National Food Security Mission (NFSM) : NFSM to stimulate growth of rice, wheat, and pulses. The NFSM has three components NFSM- rice , NFSM- wheat and NFSM -Pulses, which aim to increase the production of rice by 10 million tons, wheat by 8 milliontons and pulses by 2 million tons, respectively, by the end of the Eleventh Plan (2011/12). Some of the activities under NFSM are demonstrations in best farming practices, incentives/subsidies for distribution/replacement of (hybrid) seeds/farming implements/machinery, incentives for soil micronutrients, and incentivizing local farming initiatives are some of the activities under NFSM. It is presently being implemented in 312 districts in 17 states across India. Though it is a centrally sponsored scheme, implementation is decentralized; the state and district agencies are responsible for management of funds and implementation, and the village panchayats are actively involved in identification of beneficiaries and priority areas for Mission interventions and implementation of local initiatives in the identified districts (Ministry ofAgriculture [MoA] 2010. Rashtriya Krishi Vikas Yojna (RKVY) : RKVY was also launched in August 2007 with an outlay of Rs 25,000 crore (US$ 4.7 billion) encourage states to increase public investment in agriculture and allied service sectors. Some broad focus areas include integrated development of foodcrops (coarse cereals, minor millets, and pulses- 60,000 pulse villages) mechanization, soil health and productivity, development of rainfed farming systems,horticulture, marketing and so on. (Ministry of Finance 2010). Integrated Scheme of Oilseeds, Pulses, Oil Palm, and Maize (ISOPOM): This programme is primarily targeted at small and marginal farmers who raise oilseeds under rain fed conditions in the arid and semi-arid areas of the country. In the 11th plan period, the programme has been implemented across 14 states for oilseeds and pulses, 15 states for maize and nine states for palm oil. National mission on sustainable Agriculture: NMSA programme was founded in September 2010 with the primary objective to ensure food security as well as protect various resources such as land and water and biodiversity and genetic resources. The programme is also aimed at enabling the Indian agriculture to face challenges and threats such as climate change. Anomalies in the Seed Subsidy Schemes of Various State Governments in India 1. Transport Subsidy Scheme: The difference between the road and rail transportation cost incurred on movement of seeds produced outside the states from the despatc...
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