CommHealthSystems - Community Health Systems Communities...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–5. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Community Health Systems Communities across the globe manifest similar patterns in the ways they provide residents with security, food, water, housing, transportation, social support, governance, employment, education, social services, and many other features. Common patterns also show up in the mechanisms communities use to meet their residents’ health needs. Common traits in community health systems are based on shared ideas about what "health" is and, related to that, what the "health" system should be about, what should be in it, and how it should be organized. Defining "Health" The following definition of “health” from the preamble to the constitution of the World Health Organization (WHO) has guided the development of WHO's policies and programs since 1948, when it became operational: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of 1
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
disease or infirmity (World Health Organization, 1948). The definition is broad and multidimensional, making the point that health is not just about physical status, but mental and social condition as well. And that it has to do with well- being in stead of just not being sick. Treating Illness Operationalizing this definition has been challenging in part because many of the world's "health care" systems, perhaps better termed "illness care" systems, are based on more of a "not-being-sick" model of health. This model, sometimes referred to as the "medical model," is oriented toward the treatment of illness with the goal to move patients to a point where they are not manifesting symptoms of illness, that is, they are not sick. In this view, then, one who is not sick is well. But, as illustrated in the figure below, based on the work of John W. Travis, M.D. (Travis and Ryan, 1988), people who are not sick may not be particularly well, either. 2
Image of page 2
They are simply asymptomatic – of both illness and wellness. Figure 1. The Wellness—Illness Continuum. Adapted from the work of John W. Travis and Regina S. Ryan in the Wellness Workbook , 2nd edition. Berkeley: 10 Speed Press, 1988. Medicine and the allied professions assume responsibility for treating illness. Public health traditionally has defined its role 3
Image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
as preventing illness, although this delimitation is changing as the profession embraces the development of what has been called the "new public health" (Aston and Seymour, 1988), helping individuals move toward the wellness end of the continuum. Health education as a field fully embraces the promotion of wellness, although it too has struggled in the past with its own self-imposed limitations, over- emphasizing the role of cognition versus beliefs in determining --- and changing --- behavior (Green and Kreuter , 1999) . Promoting Wellness: The Health Field Concept In 1974, a report entitled "A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians" released by the Canadian Minister of Health, Marc Lalonde, set forth the idea of health as a "field," the result of the interactions of four major determinants (human biology, the environment, health care, and lifestyle) and not just the result of health care (Lalonde, 1974). The "health field" concept has profoundly shifted thinking internationally 4
Image of page 4
Image of page 5
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern