Toxicology Slides.pdf - PHC 7010 Toxicology Lawrence H Lash...

This preview shows page 1 - 5 out of 27 pages.

1 I. Basic Concepts in Toxicology. A. Definitions and General Concepts. B. Dose-Response Relationships. C. Factors Influencing Toxicity. D. Target Organ Toxicity Lecture 1: Principles of Toxicology.
Image of page 1
2 II. Chemical Mechanisms of Toxicity. A. Some key terms and concepts. B. General concepts. C. Biotransformation of xenobiotics to reactive electrophiles. D. Biotransformation of xenobiotics to free radicals. E. Formation of Reduced oxygen metabolites. Lecture 2: Mechanisms of Toxicity. III. Biochemical Mechanisms of Toxicity. A. Oxidative stress. B. Covalent binding. C. Inhibition of mitochondrial function. D. Calcium and cell death. E. Summary: Cellular factors determining chemical toxicity.
Image of page 2
3 Types of Chemically Induced Toxicity. Type Chemical Initiating Factor Early Molecular Target Enzyme Inhibition parathion paraxon cholinesterase fluoroacetate fluorocitrate aconitase dinitrophenol dinitrophenol U n c o u p l e s o x i d a t i v e phosphorylation rotenone rotenone I n h i b i t s o x i d a t i v e phosphorylation Cofactor Depletion galactosamine UDP- galactosamine UTP depletion ethionine S - adenosylethionine adenine/ATP menaquinone semiquinone NAD(P)H depletion Receptor Interactions TCDD TCDD binding to cytosolic receptor Physicochemical Changes Redox aniline phenylhydroxylam ine hemoglobin methemoglobin Redox acetaminophen quinoneimine oxidative damage Solubility sulfapyridine acetylsulfapyridine precipitation in renal tubules Solubility harmol harmolglucuronide biliary cholestasis Physical Damage silica silica lysosomal membranes Solvation hexane hexane membrane Classification of Mechanisms of Harmful Effects of Chemicals. A. Chemicals not intended for introduction into biological systems 1. Normal effects depending on: a. Nonspecific caustic or corrosive actions b . Specific toxicologic actions c. Production of pathological sequelae 2. Abnormal effects depending on: a. Immune mechanisms B. Chemicals intended for introduction into biological systems 1. Normal effects associated with: a. Exposure to normal doses or concentrations and depending on: (1) Malfunction of mechanisms for terminating action of the agent (2) Actions on the wrong target system (3) Synergism with other chemicals b. Exposure to excessive doses or concentrations and depending on: (1) Nonspecific caustic or corrosive actions (2) Exaggerated pharmacologic effects (3) Specific toxicologic actions (4) Production of pathological sequelae (5) Sociologic complications 2. Abnormal effects depending on: a. Immune mechanisms
Image of page 3
4 Scope of Toxicology: A. Measurement of Toxicants and Toxic End-Points 1. Analytical toxicology 2. Toxicology testing 3. Toxicological pathology 4. Structure-activity relationships 5. Biomathematics and modeling 6. Epidemiology B. Mechanisms of Toxic Action 1. Biochemical toxicology 2. Behavioral toxicology 3. Nutritional toxicology 4. Carcinogenesis 5. Mutagenesis 6. Teratogenesis 7. Target organ toxicity C. Applied Toxicology 1. Clinical toxicology 2. Veterinary toxicology 3.
Image of page 4

Want to read all 27 pages?

Image of page 5

Want to read all 27 pages?

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 27 pages?

  • Winter '18
  • podolsky
  • Redox, reactive oxygen species, Target Organ Toxicity

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern