Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics
Instructor: Dmitri Kuzmin
Institute of Applied Mathematics
University of Dortmund
[email protected]
Fluid (gas and liquid) flows are governed by partial differential equations which
represent conservation laws for the mass, momentum, and energy.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is the
art
of replacing such PDE systems
by a set of algebraic equations which can be solved using digital computers.
∼
kuzmin/cfdintro/cfd.html

What is fluid flow?

What is CFD?

Why use CFD?
Numerical simulations of fluid flow (will) enable
•
architects to design comfortable and safe living environments
•
designers of vehicles to improve the aerodynamic characteristics
•
chemical engineers to maximize the yield from their equipment
•
petroleum engineers to devise optimal oil recovery strategies
•
surgeons to cure arterial diseases (computational hemodynamics)
•
meteorologists to forecast the weather and warn of natural disasters
•
safety experts to reduce health risks from radiation and other hazards
•
military organizations to develop weapons and estimate the damage
•
CFD practitioners to make big bucks by selling colorful pictures :-)

Examples of CFD applications
Aerodynamic shape design

Examples of CFD applications
CFD simulations by L¨ohner et al.

Examples of CFD applications
Smoke plume from an oil fire in Baghdad
CFD simulation by Patnaik et al.

Experiments vs. Simulations
CFD gives an insight into flow patterns that are difficult, expensive or impossible
to study using traditional (experimental) techniques
Experiments
Simulations
Quantitative
description
of flow
Quantitative
prediction
of flow
phenomena using measurements
phenomena using CFD software
•
for one quantity at a time
•
at a limited number of points
and time instants
•
for a laboratory-scale model
•
for a limited range of problems
and operating conditions
•
for all desired quantities
•
with high resolution in
space and time
•
for the actual flow domain
•