1TOPIC 01: EVOLUTION OF CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONFor many of us, our knowledge of criminal investigation is derived from novels, television media,and crime dramas. Criminal investigation relies on modern technology such as digital imaging, laser fingerprint removal, and instant communication. To understand the practices of today, one must understand the evolution of policing and criminal investigation between the thirteenth and nineteenth centuries. The United States’ roots in criminal investigation began in Great Britain and resulted in the establishment of the first professional police force. To gain an understanding of what is meant by the term criminal investigation, you will review the history of and the types ofcriminal investigations, the role of the investigator, and the advancements in investigation that have resulted from criminal research.IntroductionImagine the morning news anchor is reporting a bank robbery in progress. The suspect escapes, but within minutes, his image from the bank surveillance camera is on the news station’s webpage and three social media sites. Within an hour, the suspect is apprehended as a result of tips from private citizens. Criminal investigations are constantly depicted in police dramas and reality television shows depicting existing techniques that provide almost immediateresults. Consequently, it is difficult to imagine a world in which video surveillance, social media, and other techniques such as DNA testing did not exist. But that was the criminal investigation world not so long ago. As the Industrial Revolution took hold in the middle of eighteenth century in Great Britain, the population and crime rates rose. The investigative approaches law enforcement agencies developed during this period paved the way for modern criminal investigation techniques.Criminal Investigation and Our English HeritageEver wonder how criminal investigation was done back in Great Britain before the United States came to be?During the Industrial Revolution, a crime wave led to the hiring of thief catchers. There were twotypes of thief catchers who aided law enforcement officials in locating criminals:Hirelings:Those whose motivation was mercenary in nature.Social climbers:Those who could implicate accomplices in order to move up the social ladder.The first police in England were called the Watch of London, later known as Old Charleys. The Old Charleys were paid by the residents they served; they originated in London in 1253 and lasted until 1829.During the1750’s, the Bow Street Runners were known as the first investigative body in England.