Midterm 2 - Sensation (Bottom-Up): The process by which...

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Sensation (Bottom-Up) : The process by which stimuli are detected, transduced into nerve impulses, and sent to the brain. Bottom-Up Processing: takes in individual elements of the stimulus and combines them into a unified perception. Sensory Modalities Vision: The sense of sight. Audition: The sense of hearing. Olfaction: The sense of smell. Gustation: The sense of taste. Somatosensation: The sense of touch, pressure, warmth, and vibration. Vestibular: The sense of body orientation or equilibrium. (Spinning rides confuse sense.) Proprioception: The sense of body position and movement. (Where is nose with eyes closed?) Vomeronasal: The specialized Organ in roof of mouth. The specialized sense of smell. (ex: Snakes and their tongues.) Trigeminal – inside and outside of mouth, a somatic sense important for detecting texture and irritation. Vibrissae – whiskers in animals. Stimuli: Only information available to the brain by a stimulus is the pattern of action potentials it receives. Frequency: the number of sound waves, or cycles, per second. <__>Pitch, Color
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Amplitude: the vertical size of the sound waves – that is, the amount of compression and expansion of the molecules in the conducting medium. <__>Loudness, Brightness Reception: Changes within sensory receptors triggered by stimuli. When a sense organ receives a disturbance (sound, light, etc.) Transduction: The conversion of one form of energy into another; in sensation, the process whereby physical stimuli are translated into nerve (neural) impulses. Eye Cornea: Outer transparent protective surface. Light waves enter here. Iris: Muscles that control the pupil’s size. Pupil: An adjustable opening that can dilate or constrict to control the amount of light that enters the eye. Low levels of light cause dilation; high levels of light cause constriction. Lens: The transparent/elastic structure behind the pupil that changes its shape (thin/thick) to focus images on the retina (far/near) Myopia: Nearsightedness – cannot see far away Hyperopia: Farsightedness – cannot see close Retina: The multilayered light-sensitive tissue at the back of the eye that contains the visual receptors. Fovea: A small area in the center of the retina that contains only densely packed cones and where visual acuity is greatest.
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Optic Nerve: The bundle of ganglion cell axons that carries information from the visual receptors to the visual area of the thalamus. Blind Spot: Limitation in sight. Fills spot with expectations. Photoreceptors: Cones and rods. Rods: Photoreceptors in the retina that function under low levels of illumination and do not give rise to color sensations. (Shades of gray, black, and white) Cones: Photoreceptors in the retina that function best in bright light and are differentially sensitive to red, green, or blue wavelengths. (Sometimes 4!) Bipolar Cells: Rods and cones release neurotransmitters (glutamate) at their terminals, sending signals to bipolar cells. Rods and cones have synaptic connections with bipolar cells.
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course PSYCH 001 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '08 term at University of Iowa.

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Midterm 2 - Sensation (Bottom-Up): The process by which...

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