Philosophy Final Review

Philosophy Final Review - Philosophy 145 Final Review...

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Philosophy 145 Final Review Summaries of Ethical Mentalities: Moral/Cultural Relativism: Your moral compass is a function of society’s beliefs. Only supports movements that maintain the status quo. Utilitarian Calculus : When judging an action, you must find the scalar sum for how happy it would make people and how many people would be made happy. Consequentialism: In the Utilitarian mentality, it is only the expected consequences that matter, not the actual ones (Ie, the dinner party with the bad food.) Utilitarianism (in general): Each Utilitarian must have their own objectives and projects, but in order to account for your own projects, you must make an exception of yourself. Act Utilitarians: Act in the way that will make the greatest amount of people the happiest. Rule Utilitarians: Apply a general rule to many situations in order to make the most amounts of people the happiest. Kantianism: Do not use a person merely as a means to an end. Also do good, even if you don’t want to, follow the categorical imperatives (something that applies to everyone, give to the poor…what not) He believes that truths are based on reason alone, and that you will be able to go from an “ought” to an “is”.He judges things based on the self defeating tasks, and if the entire society did it, would it still work (ie. Cheating on exams.) Egoists: Do what is in your best interest. Virtue Ethicists: Act by those virtues which will lead you to the not just good, but a good life and a good person. Nihilism: They believe that ethics are void, empty and fake. APPLIED ETHICS: Euthanasia: James Rachels: He believes that active and passive euthanasia are equal (the equivalence thesis). Active Euthanasia is directly killing someone, while passive Euthanasia is allowing someone to die by neglect or inaction. Winston Nesbitt: Nesbitt believes that killing a person is morally worse than letting someone die (“the difference thesis”). He addresses Rachels’ argument by saying that in the situation that Rachels provided, both Smith and Jones are morally equal because they both had the intent to kill their nephew, as they were both prepared to kill their nephew . He furthers by saying that the difference lies in intent, that individuals who let die, never have the intent to kill someone, rather they just let someone die, as opposed to an active criminal who kill their victim with intent. Abortion: Judith Jarvis Thompson: Pro-choice because she believes that the mother’s right to chose what to do with her body trumps the right of the baby’s right to life. Thomson believes that the only way that a parent has an obligation to the child is through acts of volunteerism, without which there is no obligation on the side of the parents. Baruch Brody ( Pro-Life) Pro-life because he believes that the baby’s right to life trumps the mother’s choice to do what she wants with her body. Brody makes the distinction
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between what we are critical of and what we are morally obliged to do. His self defense argument believes that there should be three items taken into account. (1) when the
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