Midterm 3 - Evolution Charles Darwin: (1809-1882) Theory of...

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Evolution Charles Darwin: (1809-1882) Theory of evolution. Found creatures on Galapagos Islands that were found nowhere else on the earth. Wrote The Origin of Species . (Look over chapters !) Descent with Modification: Gradual change. A Factor of change. Natural Selection: Engine, mechanism of change. Different traits/mutations that may offer certain advantages or disadvantages that may impact the survival of the individual and any potential offspring. Evolutionary process through which characteristics that increase the likelihood of survival and reproduction are preserved in the gene pool and thereby become more common in a species over time. Variation: Individuals within a species differ in physiology and behavior. Heredity: Many variations are resembled in offspring of their parents. Adaption: Biological and behavioral change that allows organisms to meet recurring environmental challenges to their survival, thereby increasing their reproductive ability. Homology: Similarities due to common ancestry (shared evolutionary history). Two structures are similar in organization. (Human arm and dog’s foreleg) and (Finches of Galapagos) Analogy: Similarities due to design. Similar problems have similar solutions. Natural selection results in adaptations. (Bottlenose dolphin and swordfish) and (Birds and bats) Development Nature and Nurture : Both contribute to development. Nature: Holds that biologically determined maturation produces developmental change. Genes. Nurture: Holds that experience with the environment produces developmental change. Environment. Preformation: The idea that development involves nothing more than growth. Proven to be false. Homunculus: Preformationists believed the egg contained a tiny version of the adult, the homunculus, which simply grew larger with time. (Ex: Russian dolls) Epigenesis: The idea that new life was shaped from formless matter and involved action from a vital force , a mystical property that distinguished life from nonlife. Differentiation: The offspring will be somewhat different than their parent.
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Genes: Unit of inheritance (Mendel). Regulate physiology of cell (Molecular Biology). Blueprint. “Bread Model”: Model of development. Genes are like the ingredients. Mixing them is like the environment. Monozygotic Twins (Identical): Twins resulting when a single egg splits. Dizygotic Twins (Fraternal): Twins resulting from 2 fertilized eggs. Critical Period: Particular experiences are necessary within this period of rapid change for normal development to occur. Sensitive Period: Optimal age range for certain experiences, but if they occur at a different time, normal development is still possible. Experience exerts greater impact at younger ages. Language development is a good example for both of these.
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This note was uploaded on 03/26/2008 for the course PSYCH 001 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '08 term at University of Iowa.

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Midterm 3 - Evolution Charles Darwin: (1809-1882) Theory of...

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